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Philippine

Endemic Species
group csefajari
Biodiversity (Bio 8) 2015

endemic species: a species


which is only found in a
given region or location and
nowhere else in the world.

This definition requires that the region that the species


is endemic to, be defined, such as:

site endemic (e.g. just found on Mount


Celaque);

national endemic (e.g. found only in


Honduras);

geographical range endemic (e.g.


found in the Himalayan region, which however
covers several Himalayan countries and
therefore is not a national endemic);
political region endemic (e.g. found in
countries of Central America).

State of Philippine
Biodiversity

NewCAPP (New Conservation Areas in the Philippines Project

more than 52,177 described


species, half of which are
endemic
more than 1,130 terrestrial
wildlife species recorded for
the Philippines (49 percent
or half are endemic); 157
are threatened (128 are
threatened endemic)
between 10,000 and 14,000
species of vascular and
non-vascular plants, more
than half of which are

http://www.newcapp.org/about-philippine-biodiversity.php

estimated total of 359


species of amphibians (101
species) and reptiles (258
species) are now known in
the country. Of the 359
species, 246 are endemic
currently the highest
known percentage
endemism among
vertebrates.
576 species of birds (195
are endemic). This record
makes the Philippines the
4th country in the world
terms of bird endemism.
About 45 species are

174 mammalian species


(111 are endemic), the
archipelago has the
greatest concentration of
terrestrial mammalian
diversity in the world and
the greatest
concentration of endemic
mammals in the world on
a per unit basis.
mammal assemblage in
the Philippines is the 8th
most threatened in the
world, with 50

Importance of Endemic
Species in Biodiversity
threats pointed to endemic species
establishes more risk of extinction
compared to the broadly distributed
species
when an endemic plant species
becomes extinct, it takes with it
between 10 and 30 endemic animal
species - Climate Change and
Biodiversity, edited by Thomas E. Lovejoy

Importance of Endemic
Species in Biodiversity
some endemics of distinct regions
may function as a sort of collective
insurance for continued genetic
diversity in the face of rapid
changes, while others are at
greatest risk of extinction as
conditions change
- Endemic Species are Your Home Team for the Ecosystem
(http://www.stateconservation.org/mississippi/?
q=art&id=93)

Importance of Endemic
Species in Biodiversity
biodiversity
hotspots'
where
exceptional
concentrations
of
endemic species are undergoing
exceptional loss of habitat could
constitute a kind of silver bullet for
biodiversity conservation (seminal
paper in Nature by Norman Myers et al.24
February, 2000. Vol. 403)

Mindanao Tree
Shrew
Urogale everetti

Range Description:

Population Trend:

Endemic to the Mindanao Faunal Region, Philippines. Found


in Dinagat, Mindanao (Bukidnon, Davao del Sur, Misamis
Occidental, Misamis Oriental, South Cotabato, Surigao del
Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), and Siargao.
Stable

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

The major threat is deforestation that has occurred at lower


elevations, and much of this species' habitat below 1000 m
has been lost.
This species occurs in several protected areas.

Conservation Actions:

Range Description:

Philippine Dawn
Fruit Bat
Eonycteris robusta
(Chiroptera Pteropodidae)

Population Trend:

Endemic to the Philippines.


Found in most large islands
except the Palawan Faunal
Region and the Batanes and
Babuyan group of islands.
Decreasing

Threat Category:

NT (Near Threatened)

Threats:

Deforestation and cave


disturbance.

Conservation Actions:

E. robustaoccurs in protected
areas and the caves in which
the species roosts are given
nominal protection under the
Cave Management Act, but
enforcement of this
legislation is weak. Habitat
loss has been high in the past
but the species is perhaps less
threatened currently than it
was 20 years ago (L. Heaney
pers. comm. 2006).
It is probably hunted in parts
of its range, along with other
cave-roosting bats, although

Palawan Stink
Badger

Mydaus marchei
(Carnivora - Mephitidae)

Population Trend:

This species is endemic to the Palawan Island Group,


situated between Borneo and the Philippines. Found on
Palawan Island, Busuanga, and Calauit, and is not found on
some of the smaller outlying coral islands like Rasa and
Malinau, and also not on the larger land-bridge island of
Dumaran (Widmann and Widmann, 2004).
Unknown

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

Further alteration to grassland and/or permanent


agriculture. Car traffic may also pose a threat to this species.
(Widmann and Widmann, 2004)

Conservation Actions:

There are no local laws protecting this species.

Range Description:

Visayan Spotted
Deer

Rusa alfredi
(Artiodactyla - Cervidae)

Range Description:

Endemic to the Western Visayan Islands (or Negros-Panay


Faunal Region) of the central Philippines.

Population Trend:

Decreasing

Threat Category:

EN (Endangered)

Threats:

This species has declined primarily as a result of habitat


conversion (agriculture and logging) and hunting (Cox 1987;
Oliveret al., 1991; Oliver 1992). Despite being fully protected
by law, this species is still intensively hunted throughout its
remaining range; both by local farmers in hinterland
communities and recreational hunters from larger cities.
This species is fully protected under Philippine law, but
effective enforcement is wanting in most in most areas.

Conservation Actions:

Palawan Porcupine
Hystrix pumila
(Rodentia - Hystricidae)

Range Description:
Population Trend:

The species is endemic to the Philippines being restricted to


the Palawan Faunal Region (Heaneyet al. 1998). It has been
recorded from Palawan, and Busuanga islands.
Decreasing

Threat Category:

VU (Vulnerable)

Threats:

Forest clearance and is hunted for food. It is an important


game species for some ethnic communities (Esselstynet al.
2004).
It is also traded nationally as a pet, private collectors in the
Philippines (I. Widmann pers. comm.).
The species occurs in some protected areas. It is also one of the
focal species monitored by wildlife wardens to record the
extent of hunting in the Culasian Managed Resources
Protected Area in Rizal (southern Palawan) and in Omoi
Cockatoo Reserve in Dumaran (I. Widmann pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions:

Tamaraw

Range
Description:

Bubalus mindorensis
(Artiodactyla - Bovidae)

Population
Trend:
Threat Category:
Threats:

Conservation
Actions:

Endemic to the Philippine island of


Mindoro (9,735 km in area), where
it was formerly widespread across
the island. The current range is
estimated to cover less than 300
km, in only two or three areas:
Mount Iglit-Baco National Park
(within the Iglit mountain range),
Mount Aruyan/Sablayan, and
Decreasing
Mount Calavite Tamaraw Preserve.
CR (Critically Endangered)
The main current threat to the
Tamaraw is habitat loss due to
farming by resettled and local
people, with a high human
population growth rates in and
around its remaining habitat. In
some areas, fires set for agriculture
are
a threat
to thetotal
species'
habitat.
Tamaraw
receive
protection
under Philippine law. The largest
of the three known subpopulations
occurs in Mount Iglit-Baco
National Park.

Mindanao
Bleeding-heart

Gallicolumba crinigera
(Columbidae)

Population Trend:

Endemic to thePhilippines, where it is known from Samar,


Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan (Collaret
al.1999).
Decreasing

Threat Category:

VU (Vulnerable)

Threats:

The near-total loss of lowland forest throughout its range has


caused its decline.Trapping for food and trade is a problem
for all terrestrial birds in the Philippines.

Conservation Actions:

A 7,000-hectare nesting site of the Philippine Eagle which


includes Mindanao Bleeding Heart habitat was recently
declared by a local government as protected in Mount
Hamiguitan(J. Ibanezin litt. 2007)

Range Description:

Philippine
Hawk-Cuckoo

Hierococcyx pectoralis
(Cuculidae)

Population Trend:

Endemic to thePhilippines, occurring on the islands of


Banton, Basilan, Bohol, Cagayancillo, Catanduanes, Cebu,
Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan,
Panay, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Tablas, and Ticao (Erritzoeet
al.2012). It is considered uncommon to rare, but also that it
may be overlooked (Erritzoeet al.2012).
Decreasing

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

Unknown

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Range Description:

Naked-faced
Spiderhunter

Arachnothera clarae
(Nectariniidae)

Range Description:

Endemic to thePhilippines.

Population Trend:

Stable

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

There is absence of evidence for any declines or substantial


threats.

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Camiguin
Hanging-parrot

Loriculus camiguinensis
(Psittacidae)

Range Description:

Endemic to Camiguin Island, Philippines.

Population Trend:

Unknown

Threat Category:

Unknown

Threats:

This species is threatened by a naturally limited range,


habitat destruction and trapping for the wild bird trade.

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Range
Description:

Calayan Rail

Gallirallus calayanensis
(Rallidae)

Population
Trend:
Threat Category:
Threats:

Conservation
Actions:

Endemic to Calayan Island in the


Babuyan Islands, Northern
Philippines, where it was recorded
and a specimen collected from
Longog, Barangay Magsidel, in
May 2004.
Stable
VU (Vulnerable)
In those parts of the island with
forested coralline limestone
outcrops, the soil is often very thin
or absent, and hence unsuitable for
agriculture.
Subsistent logging. Construction of
roads.
The Calayan municipal council has
passed Municipal Ordinance No.
84, which prohibits the capture,
sale, possession and collection of
the Calayan Rail (Espaola and
Oliveros 2006).

Handsome
Sunbird

Aethopyga bella
(Nectariniidae)

Range Description:

This species is endemic to the Philippines.

Population Trend:

Stable

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

Unknown

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Philippine
Cat Snake

Boiga philippina
(Squamata Serpentes Colubridae)
Range Description:

Population Trend:

Endemic to the Philippines. It has been recorded from Luzon


(the Sierra Madre), and more recently from Camiguin Norte,
Babuyan Claro and Dalupiri (R. Brown pers. comm. 2007;
Broad and Oliveros 2005).
Unknown

Threat Category:

LC (Least Concern)

Threats:

This species is generally threatened by ongoing habitat loss


and fragmentation, mostly related to slash and burn
agricultural practices, and logging operations (including
illegal extraction).
This species is present within protected areas in the northern
part of the Sierra Madre mountain range. Further studies are
needed into the distribution, abundance, ecology, and
threats.

Conservation Actions:

Philippine
Pond Turtle

Siebenrockiella leytensis
(Testudines - Geoemydidae)

Range Description:

Endemic to the Philippines.

Population Trend:

Unknown

Threat Category:

CR (Critically Endangered)

Threats:

Known from only 4 specimens this species has acquired a


mythical reputation that will make any further animals
extremely valuable in the pet trade. There are no data to
estimate its extent of occurrence, but it is presumed to be
either extremely rare or restricted to one or very few small
localities.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions:

Northern
Philippine Cobra
Naja philippinensis
(Squamata Serpentes Elapidae)

Range Description:

Endemic to the Philippines. It has been recorded from the


islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Masbate, and Marinduque.

Population Trend:

Decreasing

Threat Category:

NT (Near Threatened)

Threats:

The species is widely persecuted, especially in and around


agricultural areas. Animals are collected for the exotic food
trade (within the Philippines), and to a much lesser degree,
for the pet trade. This snake is also collected and used for
anti-venom production by the Research Institute for Tropical
Medicine (RITM).
It is presumably present in some protected areas. Awareness
programmes are needed to reduce levels of persecution.
Better control and enforcement of legislation to regulate the
exotic food trade is also needed. International trade in this
species is regulated by CITES.

Conservation Actions:

Whitefin
Topeshark

Hemitriakis leucoperiptera
(Triakidae)

Range Description:
Population Trend:

This species occurs on the Northwest Pacific: Philippine


Islands (Dumaguete, Negros, also Bagac Bay, Bataan Prov.,
Luzon). It is found inshore down to 48 m.
Unknown

Threat Category:

EN (Endangered)

Threats:

The species is probably taken as utilized bycatch by local


fisheries in the Philippines. However, past and continuing
population reduction is probable, due to the heavy inshore
fishing occurring throughout its limited area of distribution.
It may also be suffering from habitat loss and deterioration,
for dynamite and cyanide fishing have affected much of the
reef habitat in its area.
None.

Conservation Actions:

Gloeocarpus

Gloeocarpus patentivalvis
1 spp.
(Sapindaceae)

Range Description:

A rare tree restricted to Mindanao, Samar, Leyte and Luzon.

Population Trend:

Unknown

Threat Category:

EN (Endangered)

Threats:

Unknown

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Fowlie's
Paphiopedilum

Paphiopedilum fowliei

Range Description:

Endemic to the Philippines, localized on one island


(Palawan). Found in low elevations.

Population Trend:

Unknown

Threat Category:

CR (Critically Endangered)

Threats:

Loss and degradadtion of habitat and over-collection for


trade. Utilized as an ornamental plant.

Conservation Actions:

The entire island of Palawan is declared a protected area.

Spoon-leaf
Sundew

Drosera spatulata

Range Description:

Population Trend:

Drosera spatulata can be found found in Australia,


Tasmania, and New Zealand, and also in various parts of the
Far East, including China, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong,
Borneo, and the Philippines
Unknown

Threat Category:

Unknown

Threats:

Unknown

Conservation Actions:

Unknown

Peltate Nephentes
Nepenthes peltata

Range
Description:

From Mt. Hamiguitan


Range, Mindanao,
Philippines

Population
Trend:
Threat
Category:
Threats:

Unknown

Conservation
Actions:

Unknown

Unknown
Unknown

Sea Poison Tree


Barringtonia asiatica

Range
Description:

Population
Trend:
Threat
Category:
Threats:
Conservation
Actions:

Endemic to mangrove
habitats on the tropical
coasts and islands of the
Indian Ocean and western
Pacific Ocean from Zanzibar
east to Taiwan, the
Philippines, Fiji, New
Caledonia, Solomon Islands,
the Cook Islands, Wallis and
Futuna and French
Unknown
Polynesia.
LC (Least Concern)
Unknown
Unknown

Reference
http://www.biodiversity-worldwide.info/endemism.htm
State of Philippine Biodiversity
http://www.newcapp.org/cgi-bin/news/content.php?id=
78
Endemic Species are Your Home Team for the
Ecosystem.
http://www.stateconservation.org/mississippi/?q=art&i
d=93
www.arkive.org

Citations
Tabaranza, B., Ruedas L., Widmann, P. & Esselstyn, J. 2008.Mydaus marchei. The
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. www.iucnredlist.org
Ong, P., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Walston, J., Balete, D., Alcala, E., Reizl,
J.C., Ramayla, S., Sedlock, J., Gomez, R., Gonzalez, J.C., Ingle, N. & Heaney, L.
2008.Eonycteris robusta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3
Tabaranza, B., Gonzalez, J.C., Rosell-Ambal, G. & Heaney, L. 2008.Urogale everetti.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
Oliver, W., MacKinnon, J., Heaney, L. & Lastica, E. 2008.Rusa alfredi. The IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
Heaney, L., Balete, D., Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Ong, P. & Widmann, P.
2008.Hystrix pumila. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
Hedges, S., Duckworth, J.W., Huffman, B., de Leon, J., Custodio, C. & Gonzales, J.
2013.Bubalus mindorensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.3.
BirdLife International 2013.Gallicolumba crinigera. The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
BirdLife International 2014.Hierococcyx pectoralis. The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.

Citations
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet:Arachnotheraclarae.
http://www.parrots.org/index.php/encyclopedia/profile/camiguin_hanging_parrot/
BirdLife International 2012.Aethopyga bella. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2014.3.
Brown, R. & Diesmos, A. 2009.Boiga philippina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2014.3.
Asian Turtle Trade Working Group 2000.Siebenrockiella leytensis. The IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
Sy, E., Brown, R., Afuang, L., Diesmos, A. & Gonzalez, J.C. 2009.Naja
philippinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
Compagno, L.J.V. 2006.Hemitriakis leucoperiptera. The IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.
van Welzen, P.C. 1998.Gloeocarpus patentivalvis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species. Version 2014.3.
Agoo, E.M.G., Cootes, J., Golamco, A., Jr., de Vogel, E.F. & Tiu, D.
2004.Paphiopedilum fowliei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.3.

Citations
http://www.sarracenia.com/faq/faq5412.html