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Antioxidants in

Dermatology
Stevan Pagar P.S
406138052
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Tarumanagara
Kepaniteraan Klinik Ilmu Penyakit Kulit dan Kelamin
RSUD Kota Semarang

abstrak

Antioxidants : neutralize free radicals


Free radicals : unstable molecules that
has unpaired valence electrons
Oxidative stress : reflects imbalance
between the systemic free radicals and
endogenous antioxidants

Introduction

Aging : progressive decrease in the


functioning and reserve capacity of all
organs in the body, including skin

Theory of Aging and Free


Radicals

Denham Harman
1950 : generation of free radicals results in
damage to biomolecules including DNA.
1970 : mitochondrial production of reactive
oxygen species (ROS)
Later : theory expanded to include other
diseases such as malignancies, vitiligo,
Alzheimers, etc

Greenstock CL. Free Radicals. In: Alan R, editor.


Aging and degenerative diseases. New York: Liss
Inc; 1986.

Free radicals with


unpaired electron
seek and seize
electrons from vital
components
Free radical
formation and
antioxidant
quenching the free
radical

2 type of free radicals


OXYGEN CENTERED (ROS)
Super oxyde anion

superoxide anion (O2-)


Peroxide
hydroxyl radical (OH)
hydroxyl ion
singlet oxygen (1O2)

NITROGEN CENTERED (RNS)


Nitric oxide (NO)
peroxynitrite (ONOO-)

Exogenous source of ROS Endogenous source of ROS


Leaks in electron transport
Air pollutans
chain
Ozone
Food stuffs / inflammatory cells
Radiation
produce free radicals by a
Chemicals
process of resporatory burst
during phagoytosis or enzymes
Smoking
Toxins
Pathogenic microorganisms

Skin and Free Radicals

Healthy skin : produce ROS and RNS

Fx : cell proliferation, differentiation,


senescence, and death

Endogenous antioxidants maintain


homeostatis : neutralizing free radicals
from damaging skin
When the fine balancse is lost
oxidative stress

Oxidative stress pay


role in
aging of skin
solar elastosis,
wrinkles,
coarse texture,
telangiectasia and
pigmentation
Psoriasis
ACD, AD
Vitiligo
acne vulgaris
PV
lichen planus
alopecia areata
melanomas

Pathogenic mechanism
that produce lesions
Activator protein (AP-1)
and Nuclear factor B
(NF-B)
inflammatory changes
metalloproteinase
(MMP) like collagenase
which causes
decreased collagen
production, increased
collagen breakdown,
and increased elastin
accumulation resulting
in features of aging
mitogenic activated
protein kinase (MAPK)
skin cancer

Antioxidants

Greenstock CL. Free Radicals. In: Alan R, editor. Aging and degenerative diseases. New York: Liss
Inc; 1986.

Network antioxidants : synergy between


one to another antioxidant

Distribution of
Antioxidants

Natural antioxidants in skin


Viable layer of Epidermis : Vit E, catalase,
superoxide dismutases, glutathione
peroxidases
Extracellular space of epidermis and dermis :
ascorbic acidd, uric acid, glutathione
Outer most layer : glutathione, Vit C, uric acid,
-tocopherol, squalene, and coenzyme Q10

Baumann L, Alemann IB. Antioxidants. In: Baumann L, Saghari S, Weisberg E, editors.


Cosmetic Dermatology:
Principles and Practise. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009. pp. 292311.

n L, Alemann IB. Antioxidants. In: Baumann L, Saghari S, Weisberg E, editors. Cosmetic Dermatology:
s and Practise. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009. pp. 292311.

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant activity of various antioxidant


is studied using 4 parameters :
TEAC : trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity
ORAC : oxygen radical absorbing capacity
FRAP : ferric reducing antioxidant capacity
DPPH : free radical scavenging properties by
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical

Seeram NP, Aviram M, Zang Y, Henning SM, Feng L, Dreher M, et al. Comparison of antioxidan potency of commonly consumed
polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:141522. [PubMed

Prevent the side effects of antioxidants


with
Topical vit E or retinoids for irritation
Oral niacin for peripheral vasodilatation or
cutaneous flushing

Paucity of clinical trials : role of


antioxidants to prevent aging of skin
Combining antioxidants with sunscreens
(cream) stable and unstable
Combining antioxidants to another :
synergistic

Conclusion

Free radical can damage


DNA
Lipid membrane
Collagen structures

Free radical pay roll in skin cancer


Oral and topical antioxidants provide
benefits from free radical damage

Need long term studies to validate

References
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