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Quality Circle Forum of

presents
India

NEW SEVEN
TOOLS
& PRIORITIZATION
ANYLYSIS

- simplified

TREE DIAGRAM

What is a Tree Diagram?


Tree Diagram is a technique for mapping out
full range of paths and tasks that need to be
done in order to achieve a primary goal and
related sub goals. Such a diagram reveals
in a simple way with clarity not only the
magnitude of the problem but also helps to
arrive at methods which are to be pursued to
achieve the results. In other words, it serves
the purpose of developing the essential
means to achieve an objective or goal.

Concept
This is also known as Systematic Diagram as it
systematically maps out all the details
connected to a problem or a project. That way it
helps to achieve the primary goal and every
related sub goals of the issue under study.
This is also called Dendrogram as the word
Dendro in Greek means Tree.
Tree Diagram is a derivative from FAST Diagram
(Functional Analysis System Technique) used in
Value Engineering.

There are two ways of questioning


from objective to means.
i. For the development of means.
i.e., to achieve a goal what is the most
necessary means?
ii. For the confirmation of the objectives.
i.e., can the principal goal be really
achieved by this means or be partially
achieved.

Tree Diagram uses simple linear


logic, which makes our job much
easier and comfortable.

In case of Affinity
Diagram and
Relations Diagram
they basically deal
with dark areas
which makes job
more difficult. Such
an area is replaced
by an orderly
structure in case of
Tree Diagram.

Tree Diagram is very simple to make


but has a tremendous potential.

If in case of difficulty or uncertain


situations, Affinity Diagram or Relations
Diagram is useful for arriving at a
meaningful picture.

Tree Diagram is useful where


linear logic is to be used.

The whole process


may look tedious
and time consuming
but breakthrough of
effective
implementation is
achieved by such
methods only. In a
hurry, we generally
miss important
points many times .

Tree Diagram helps one to


have proper system and
method to take care of
every detail.

The Tree Diagram has been also


used for making family tree chart
and in companies for making
organizational charts.

Suppose we have been given a


task, we will have a target or
goal to achieve.

Similarly if we are facing a problem


or constrain, we have to find out the
causes to workout the remedy for
overcoming the problem.

In both the cases Tree


Diagram helps us in
our task.
Let us see now in both
the cases how it helps.
In case of task we will
be using the
terminology goal and
means and for problem
the terminology
constrain and cause.

MEAN
GOAL
MEAN

EXAMPLE
TO GET
FIRST RANK

JOIN SPECIAL
CLASSES
STOP
SEEING TV

CAUSE
CONSTRAINT
CAUSE
EXAMPLE

MORE
EXPENSES
THAN INCOME

SUDDEN
ILLNESS

EATING OUT

GOAL

PRIMARY MEAN

Let us first take up the task.


In order to successfully complete the task
or goal we have to first find out the
primary means for them.

GOAL

PRIMARY
MEAN

GOAL

SECONDARY
MEAN

These primary means will be few. Each


primary mean can be achieved only with the
help of certain secondary means. Here the
primary mean becomes the goal for secondary
means.

GOAL

PRIMARY
MEAN

GOAL

SECONDARY
MEAN

GOAL

TERTIARY
MEAN

Similarly each secondary mean needs certain


tertiary means to achieve them. Here the
secondary mean is goal for them.

GOAL

PRIMARY
MEAN

GOAL

SECONDARY
MEAN

GOAL

TERTIARY
MEAN

GOAL

QUATERNARY MEAN

GOAL

Depending upon the complexity of the problem


tertiary means may need certain quaternary
means and so on.

CONSTRAINT

PRIMARY
CAUSE

CONSTRAINT

SECONDARY
CAUSE

CONSTRAINT

TERTIARY
CAUSE

CONSTRAINT

QUATERNARY CAUSE

CONSTRAINT

Here substitute the word goal with constrain


and the word means with causes. This will
give the process for solving the problem.

As shown a Tree Diagram can be used to


achieve certain target or goal and also to
overcome certain problem.
Here it displays in a systematic manner each
level as means or causes, which in turn
becomes goal or constrain of next stage.
This helps to clarify the objective, which makes
one to understand the magnitude of the issue
and resources and methods needed to achieve
or manage them.

How to become
crorepati

This method is useful everywhere and


all we need is imagination to make use
of them for our benefit.

To sum up Tree Diagram helps us to


understand the sequence of tasks
that need to be completed in order
to fully address the key
issue/problem/objective. They also
give you a picture of component
parts of the issue that need to be
addressed.

It also gives an idea


whether implementation
logic has a cogency

How complex will be the


solution implementation

Now that it is broken into


quaternary level, tasks
can be assigned to various
people

what are the assignable tasks

Prioritisable option
that could come out
from the main issue.

Even though it may look like a tedious


process it helps us to take up a
systematic approach as the name
indicates.

Basically it
helps us to
plan our
activities
properly. In
fact this is our
main weakness
whenever a
task is taken
up.

What PDCA! Dont waste


your time on such stupid
things. Go and do your job

We do not plan properly, with the


result our preparations are inadequate.

I have done a
temporary patch up to
keep things going. We
will attend to it later on.

We invariably face a crises in our


task and our remedial approach is
fire fighting.

This is the ninety eighth time


you have attended to this job.
When are you going to
celebrate century!

This results in inadequate measures for


the task, making chances of problem
repetition inevitable.

I think I can find solution to


this problem only by
getting rid of you

Above all the solution implemented


does not give satisfaction.

RT
O
P
RE

After spending lots of money and


time we are not happy with the
result.

With Tree Diagram one can create a


systematic focal point to ensure that all points
are covered and see that the lines of logic are
sound. This approach in many cases brings a
break through and generally we do not miss
any important aspect.

Mary!This approach in many


cases brings a break
through and generally we do
not miss any important
aspect.

The uses are to find out

a) In which
order we
should take
up the key
issues of
the problem
to get full
benefits?

b. What are the sub factors of


the key issue?

Oh God! There is
no water in the
Pool. I forgot to
check up first.

c. Whether plan of actions is


sequential.

Look the the Tree


Diagram. Implementation process
will call for help of
at least three more
persons

d. How difficult the implementation


process will be?

Tree Diagram reveals


that there are three
options and minimum
30 major tasks are
involved with this
project.

e. How many tasks and options


will be the out come of each key
issues?

Tree Diagrams can be developed in two ways.


One is called Component Development Type
Tree Diagram and the other is called Means
Development Type or Means Deployment
Type Diagram.

GOAL

MEANS
Apply for HDFC loan
Apply for office loan
Apply for PF loan

To buy a house

Put together all your


savings

Borrow from friends


and relatives

a. Component Development Type Tree Diagram


Here the main subject is broken into basic element and
then relationship to the overall goal is shown. It also shows
means for achieving that goal. In other words this type
helps to display the component elements in terms of their
purposes and means.

b. Plan Development Design Type or


Means Deployment Type Tree Diagram
Under this two broad clarification
commonly
used Tree Diagrams are,
a. Function Tree Diagram.
b. Quality Tree Diagram.
c. Means Deployment Tree Diagram.
d. Cause and Effect Tree Diagram.

1. Function type Tree Diagram


It can be used for developing
administrative functions. In this
type or Tree Diagram, it can be split
up as follows.
- "Target conditions" for work in
each department.
- Clarify purpose of work.

1. Function type Tree Diagram


This will lead to discovery of new
approaches to work, simplifications
improvements and eventually
achieving departmental objectives.
This will, in turn, help to improve
the administrative structure itself.

TERTIARY
FUNCTION
SECONDARY
FUNCTION
(SUBOBJECTIVE)
BASIC
FUNCTION
(OBJECTIVE)
BASIC
FUNCTION

TERTIARY
FUNCTION

SECONDARY
FUNCTION

(SUBOBJECTIVE)
BASIC
FUNCTION

SECONDARY
FUNCTION

SECONDARY
FUNCTION

AREA OF BASIC FUNCTION

TERTIARY
FUNCTION

TERTIARY
FUNCTION

TERTIARY
FUNCTION

AREA OF SECONDARY AND TERTIARY


FUNCTION

PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
PARTS
FUNCTION
AREA OF PARTS
FUNCTION

Quality Tree Diagram (This will come


under component development).
2.

This type is used for quality designing and quality


assurance.
In a new product development,
The quality desired by the customers has to
be defined (obtained through a research
survey).
The planned quality according to that will be
the primary goal.
Through quality designing, the planned
quality desired by the customer is put into
design.

In a new product development,


The quality desired by the customers has to
be defined (obtained through a research
survey).
The planned quality according to that will be
the primary goal.
Through quality designing, the planned
quality desired by the customer is put into
design.

QUALITY
PLANNING

QUALITY
DESIRED BY
USERS

OBJECTIVE

BUILDING INTO
DESIGN PLANNED
QUALITY

PLANNED
QUALITY
(SPECNS.)

PRIMARY GOAL

FUNCTION AND
PRODUCTION
DESIGN

DESIGNED
QUALITY

MEANS OF DESIGNING
PRODUCT IN PROCESS

(CREATING
CHARACTERISTICS
DESIRED AS PER
PRIMARY AND
SECONDARY GOALS)

3.

Means Deployment Tree Diagram

Let us say that an


enterprise wants to
embark on annual
quality improvement
on a continuous
basis as primary
goal.
What should be level
one means?

Means Deployment Tree Diagram


(Contd.)
3.

i. Preparing all employees from top to


bottom to have an involvement and
commitment to continuous
improvement in their work.
Ii. Establishing policies and objectives for
quality.
Iii. Introducing TQM.
Iv. Preparing a quality assurance manual.

Means Deployment Tree Diagram


(Contd.)
3.

v. Preparing guidelines for achieving quality


improvements through deployment of quality
goals at all levels and achieving it through
effective policy management.
vi.Creation of quality teams at all levels
(management - QITS and workers - QC
Circles)
etc.
What mentioned above are the secondary
means that are required to achieve the
primary
goal. This can be further extended to
tertiary and quarternary means.

Means Deployment Tree Diagram


(Contd.)
3.

What mentioned above are the secondary


means that are required to achieve the primary
goal. This can be further extended to tertiary
and quarternary means.

MEANS

MEANS

QUALITY DESIGN

FUNCTION
DESIGN

QUALITY
DESIRED BY
USERS
OBJECTIVE

DESIGNED
QUALITY
OBJECTIVE

MEANS
STUDY PROCESS
CAPABILITY

CONTROL
QUALITY
CHARACTE
R-ISTICS
AND LEVEL

CONTROL ITEMS AND


CONTROL METHODS

OBJECTIVE

DOCUMENT QC
PROCESS SHEET

4. Cause and Effect Tree Diagram


Cause and effect diagram is simple
and effective. But sometimes when we
have numerous causes, when more
analysis are needed for each individual
causes, the best way to manage is by
making it as a Tree Diagram.

a
A

B
4

1
2

6
e

6
h

8
9

f
i

10

11
1

C
g

8
f

10

11

12

Application of Tree Diagram


various areas and function

to

a. When you take up a new job or


assignment?
When the job is not a routine one and
calls for proper understanding and
planning before venturing into that,
Tree Diagram will come of use.

I am not happy the


way Quality Circles
function. Let us call
Steering Committee
meeting

Let us say that the company has


introduced Quality Circle movement in
the organization as a part of TQM. The
functionary is not very satisfactory.

Tracy! I want an action


plan from you to improve
the Quality Circle function
in our company

The coordinator was asked to work out


an action plan to improve the function.

She forms a
team and the
team
discussed
and arrived
at an action
plan as
shown.

ACTION PLAN

Attendance award
Innovation

Award for learning PST


Include in his personal file

E
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E
Q
C

Positive
action

Give time for


movement
Create trust
in you

Make it
more
systematic

Create trust in
planning
Develop
leader

Create conducive atmosphere


Letter to create trust
Learn the technique yourself
Be a member of QIT
Attend QC meetings
Make QCs to submit annual plan
Ensure milestone charts are made for problem
Have training programmes
Give motivation
With department

Corrective
action

Follow up

With QCs
With co-ordinators

Assignment

Make facilitators attend S.C meeting in rotation

b. When management wants to


implement a new order?
When management wants to
implement a new order, which is
very complex and calls for detailed
analysis. The organization decided
to take up implementation of ISO
9000. This calls for gearing up all.
This will call for lot of preparation,
training etc. A Tree Diagram is
made about the entire process and
then converted into Arrow Diagram
after establishing the priorities with
the help of Matrix Prioritization
Process.

This calls for gearing up all. This will


call for lot of preparation, training etc.

3d

1518
6 2730 7
18180d
2d1527
25
4 d 13 11 d 3030 13
9 13
1324 8 243 d
5 19
653d9 3 2125
304 7
30
1
3 14
3d
52
1
6d
1 00 33 2 5
4349
d
13
4349
1 43
3 8d
1
2
3 8
9d
10 d 332 43
8 17 11 2232 12
1932
4 1322

6d

8 14
8 14

5d

19223
1922

1419 10
9 14
19

A Tree Diagram is made about the entire


process and then converted into Arrow
Diagram after establishing the priorities with
the help of Matrix Prioritization Process.

C. For tasks needing


special attention
There are certain
tasks wherein, if one
misses a small point,
consequential
problem or loss may
be very high. It may
be related to safety or
fulfilling a time bound
commitment.

Gosh!
I forgot to keep the
food stuff for
astronauts

d. Delay in fulfilling a commitment


Some times a job undertaken may not be getting
completed on time due to many unforeseen
problems. Here too it will help you to pre-plan.

The organization
wants to control the
inventory level and is
introducing JIT. There
are lots of problems
with the component
supplies to the
assembly line from
the vendor. A Tree
Diagram will help in
bringing down the
defect and on solving
such problem.

Sir, the vendor has not


sent the blades. Can we
send the fans without
them?

He is a Deming
award winning
customer and his
quality requirements
are stringent and
only a Tree Diagram
can help us plan.

e. When the customer requirement is


very high and covers a large area.
With the help of a Tree Diagram they
can be properly specified.

ii. A two wheeler manufacturer wants to


introduce a new model in 150-cc category.
He is doing a QFD study for that. A tree
diagram will help to specify the requirement
of the customer. This will help to create a
list of customer needs and also help the
company to analyse on each specific
demand.

Engine

Should start
quick
Pick up
Fuel
efficiency

PLANNING
FOR
NEW
150 CC
MOTOR
CYCLE

Look

Appea
rance/
Aesthe
tics

Other aspects

Safety

Brake

Theft proof

Other

Cost

Price

Should
Shouldstart
startalways
always
Simple kick mechanism
Minimum effort
To reach peak in 5 seconds
No jerks
85 KM at ideal condition
Better reserve capacity
Sleek
Pleasing colours
Sturdy appearance
No protrusion
Safety lock
Auto alarm
Quick to stop
Balanced vehicle
Rear view mirror
Good horn warning light
Easy instalment
Competio

f. Developing a
new product
A Tree Diagram
can also be usual
when developing a
new product.
The example
shown for (e.ii)
applicable here
too.

g. While
developing
solutions to
problem
Tree Diagram is
very useful to
develop solutions
to various internal
problems such as
quality, cost,
production volume,
safety etc.

S
ION
T
LU
SO

How do I
introduce
TQM in my
factory?

h. For developing an objective


An organization wants to introduce TQM. This
will call for proper planning, deciding on the
objectives, policies, activity items etc.
Tree
Diagram will help to map out all the needed
action for implementation systematically.

When I said catch him red


handed I did not mean
apply red paint in your hand

i.

To clarify the functions

Tree Diagram is very useful for clarifying


departmental function; control function and
promoting increased productivity.

God! I ignored
soil testing
thinking it is a
wasteful effort.

j. Can be used for personal activities


If any one wants to construct a house, or
conduct a marriage Tree Diagram can be made
to find out the activities.
Then it can be
converted in to PERT/CPM.

Bench marking with Tree


Diagram shows their direct
marketing given the edge to
them

k. For comparison with competitors


Tree Diagram will help to map out all aspects, which
needs to be benchmarked with that of the competitor.
It will help to find out the areas of strength and
weaknesses.

I wish our R&D makes a


Tree Diagram for the middle
east market about how to
make mineral water out of
petrol

Ramar pillai
makes petrol
out of water

l. Can be used in R&D area


Tree Diagram can be used in
Research and Development area

m. Action area from Affinity


Diagram or Relation Diagram
As pointed out earlier we can
pick up action area from the
Affinity Diagram or Relations
Diagram and then proceed to
make. Tree Diagram for the
action point.

Withdrawal
of award
certificate

Happiness

Fear
General
feeling

Success
Stories

Reflect in
appraisal

Individual
award
Ill effects of not
implementing

Propagation of
success
Cost of
quality

PEP UP FOR
TQM
ACTIVITIES

n. Can be used with many other


techniques
Tree Diagram also can be used with
many other techniques.
Eg. With Matrix Diagram

This is useful when ways and means of


solving problems are to be mapped out.

How to make Tree Diagram?

Step 1
If we are already given a task then
we can proceed from there.
Suppose one is given a larger task
like Find out the ways and means
of implementing TQM or How to
make and market Product X? Here
it is not a task for one Tree
Diagram.

Step 1
We may have to first make an Affinity
Diagram and/or Relations Diagram to find
out the number of tasks; we have to carry
out to fulfil that large objective.

Header card

Step 1
In case of Affinity Diagram we may
choose one of the header cards along
with the other cards associated to that
and proceed further.

Step 1
Similarly many teams may be
formed for depending upon
the number of header cards
and their importance. In case
of Relations Diagram we will
have to study the diagram
first.

Step 1
We have to find out the
number points on which
large number of arrows
are converging in. We
may find few points like
that.
We can study,
prioritize and take one
of them for further
analysis. Each one of
them is the effect of so
many causes i.e., points
from which arrows were
leading to that one.

Step 1
Similarly from few points many arrows
will be emerging. That means each one
of them are possible sources for so many
effects. They are also important. We can
select one of them also for analysis.

Step 2
Once the
task is
clear
select a
right team.

Step 2
Tree diagram leads to an action
plan.

Step 2
Here the team
members should
be
knowledgeable
of the task as
well as capable
of creative
thinking.

Step 2
Generally they
are about
process where
usually
specialized
knowledge is
required.

Drop John from the


team. I dont think
he has any
knowledge about
the process

Step 2
Hence team members should have
intimate knowledge of implementation
issues.

Step 3
Have a big board and
reusable (3M) adhesive
stickers. Now days we
have big magnetic boards
available. Along with that
have small reusable metal
plates. These plates are
small with painted surface.
Your can write on them
with erasable marker pens.
They can be afterwards
wiped out for reuse.

Step 3
Along with that have
small reusable metal
plates. These plates
are small with painted
surface. Your can
write on them with
erasable marker pens.
They can be
afterwards wiped out
for reuse.

Step 3 (Contd.)

Write on the board the task for everybody to


see. The most difficult part of constructing
a Tree Diagram is arriving at primary cause
or principal means.

Step 3 (Contd.)

The best way to solve the problem is


carry out a brainstorming and
generating the points associated to that
i.e., action plan.

Step 3 (Contd.)

This is in a way
good because if we
have the primary
course or principal
means we may lead
to go in the
traditional way. As
we may need a
creative thinking
brainstorming will
help us in that.

Lets get creative Turty


boy, we need to make a
good tree diagram!

Step 4
After the points are generated you
may make an Affinity Diagram or
Relations Diagram. This depends
upon the group as well as task in
question. If the Affinity Diagram is
made, make the header card and
discuss.
They will invariably
become the primary means.

Step 4
In case Relations Diagram is
made select the points wherein
arrows are emerging or
converging. They will help to
arrive at primary means or
principle cause.

Withdrawal
of award
certificate

Happiness

Fear
General
feeling

Success
Stories

Reflect in
appraisal

Individual
award
Ill effects of not
implementing

Propagation of
success
Cost of
quality

PEP UP FOR
TQM
ACTIVITIES

Step 5
Once the primary means or
principle cause is arrived at
finding out the associated
causes from the ideas
generated is not a difficult
task.

Step 5
As we have already made an Affinity
Diagram or Relations Diagram identifying
them is simple.

GOAL

PRIMARY
MEAN

GOAL

SECONDARY
MEAN

GOAL

TERTIARY
MEAN

Step 5
They have to be organized as secondary,
tertiary, quaternary etc.

Step 5
At this stage further discussion by the group
will help to identify some causes which were
missed earlier. This way we can arrive at all
the causes and position them in the board.

Step 5
If the space is
not sufficient
we may work
out for each
cause. Then
all can be
copied to a
bigger sheet
properly.

If you cant make it in one sheet


it is OK. Make them separately
for each cause and copy them
all in a big sheet later on.

Tertiary
function
Secondary
function
(Subjective)
Basic
function

Tertiary
function
Secondary
function

(Objective)
Basic
function

(Subjective)
Basic
function

Area of basic function

Tertiary
function

Secondary
function

Tertiary
function

Secondary
function

Tertiary
function

Area of secondary & tertiary


function

Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Parts function
Area of parts function

Step 6
Now review the
completed diagram
for logical flow.
Effectiveness of Tree
diagram depends
upon how the means
or causes in each
level can achieve the
tasks of the next
higher level.

Step 6
This needs to be
ensured at this
stage. Have a
discussion putting
up the question
Whether these
actions will help to
achieve the result
needed or fulfil the
objective?

Do you all feel


that this action
will give the
desired result?

Step 6
This can be put in another
way also. Ask if we want to
achieve this, do we have to
do all these things. This
way makes sure that no
steps needed are omitted.

What do you mean by


whether I have an
open mind! Of course I
have! As long as your
ideas agree with mine

Step 6
Always have an open mind for
discussion.

TREE DIAGRAM Vs AFFINITY DIAGRAM


AND RELATIONS DIAGRAM
Affinity Diagram and Relations Diagram
have no prescribed format but Tree
Diagram is made in an orderly structure
and here things will look (crystal) clear to
everyone. As mentioned earlier, for Tree
Diagram we can take up issues and break
them to sub-levels, sub-sub levels and
reaches to the lowest practical level of
action.

TREE DIAGRAM Vs AFFINITY DIAGRAM AND


RELATIONS DIAGRAM (Contd.)
Tree Diagram is helpful in many ways.
i) It gives clarity to the issue.
ii) In showing the sequence in which things flow and
what type of an effect each action will have on the main
issue would be much clear.
Here we are also able to assess the total activity
involved in fulfilling a task. This will also give us clarity
on the magnitude of the task, the number of people
needed, money needed and also the total time it will
take.

To sum up, Affinity Diagram uses gut


level creativity and helps to have a
meaningful picture when we face an
unknown or very difficult problem.
Interrelationship Digraph or Relations
Diagram helps to find out the causal
relation between the various factors
involved. Tree Diagram takes the key
issues of these processes and helps
to break them down into the lowest
practical level of details possible.

Establish your
identity
Use of
TV
Publicity

Use of
computer
Use of news
paper

For effective
consultation
service

Create an impact
Have a good anchor
Establish contact
through e-mail
Create a web site
Create good
advertisement
Selection of
media

Select right
industries

Find out which


company has
conductive
atmosphere
Convince CEO
through talks

Create
impact on
industries

Send invitation for


participation
Conduct
seminars

Get good faculty


members

Take
helpstart
of experts
Should
always
Benchmark with well known
Prepare good demonstrate visuals
Find out the right person
Make catchy write up for CEOS
Send details of regular programme
Give information about yourself
Publish useful articles regularly
Take the help of professionals
Make it attractive
Select business papers
Get the right spot
Select right data
Conduct survey
Collect information from market
Use good brochures
Get appointment at right time
Make it appealing
Send it to right person
Make them feel important

Summary
There are a lot of similarities between tree
Diagram and Cause and Effect Diagram
made using dispersion method.
But they have their own individuality also.
Cause and Effect Diagrams are made to
find out the causes for the effect. In case of
Tree Diagram it is used for more purposes.
Tree Diagram helps to work out the
minutest details of a task undertaken. Here
we can map out the choices before us and
plan our actions based on our capability..