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CHI SQUARE

TEST
Prepared by :
Hafiz Muhammad
Naveed

INTRODUCTION
Chi

square test is an important test


amongst the several tests of significance.
It was developed by Karl Pearson in 1990.
It is a non-parametric test, no assumption.
Follow a specific distribution.
Tells us the difference b/w what is
observed and what is expected.

IMPORTANT

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHI
SQUARE TEST

Non-paremetric

test ,based on frequencies .


Useful for testing hypothesis not estimation
Can apply on complex contigencies tables .
No rigid assumptions.
Less mathematical details .
No parameter values.

Important
Parametric

terms

test.
Non-parametric test.
Hypothesis
Null hypothesis (Ho)
Alternative hypothesis.
Degree of freedom.

O
fr bs
eq e
ue rv
nc ed
ie
s

Ex
fr pe
eq c
ue ted
nc
y

Ex
fr pe
eq ct
ue ed
nc
y

(
O

E
)
2

Construct a table with the information you have observed


or obtained.

Observed Frequencies (O)


Money

Benefit

Growth

Row
Total

men

82

446

355

883

women

46

574

273

893

Column total

128

1020

628

1776

dept. of futures studies 2010-'12

Work

out the expected frequency.

Expected frequency = row total x column total


Grand total

money

benefit

growth

Row
Total

men

63.63

507.128

312.23

883

women

64.36

512.87

315.76

893

Column Total

128

1020

628

1776

dept. of futures studies 2010-'12

For

each of the cells calculate.

(O E)2
E
money

benefit

growth

Men

5.30

7.37

5.85

women

5.23

7.29

5.8

Column Total

Row
Total

2Calc. =
36.873

dept. of futures studies 2010-'12

= sum of all ( O-E)2/ E values in the cells.


Here 2Calc. =36.873
2Calc.

Find 2critical From the table with degree of freedom 2


and level of significance 0.05
2Critical =5.99

dept. of futures studies 2010-'12

Chi

square distribution

Application

1)

of chi square test

Goodness of fit of distribution.


2)Test of independence of
attributes.
3)Test of homogenity.

Goodness

of fit of distribution.

This

test enables us to see how well does the


assumed theoratical distr, fit to the observed data.
Formula
x2 = ( o e)2 / e
If x2 calculated > tabulated then reject the null
hypothesis.
If not then it follows a theoratical distribution.

Test

of independence of attributes.

Enables

us wheather or not 2 attributes are


associated.
E.G
new medicine is effective in controlling fever or
not .
We consider null hypothesis if x2 calculated >
tabulated then reject the null hypothesis.
When null hypothesis is rejected it means
association is present b/w attributes.

Test

of homogenity.

Tells us whether or not is there any


uniformity in occurance of events .
If x2 calculated < tabulated then null
hypothesis is accepted.

Conditions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Data must be in form of frequencies.


Organised in groups or categories.
Observations collected randomly.
No group contains few items.
Overall numbers must be reasonable
large.

References

slideshare
Scribd
cliffnotes

The

end
thank you.