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Marthad abdolmonem 044065
Mohammed ahmed osman 054054
Suhail mohammed khairi
Rughem osman karfis




At power plants with fossil fuel coordination

working mode consist several hierarchical
organized regulation levels.
Main purpose of coordination control is to secure
that system boiler-turbine-generator in
automatic pressure control behave like one
entity. For that purpose is necessary to integrate
multitude different regulation circuit into one
structure called main controller. This regulator
must control two main control signals:

steam pressure at boiler output (boiler

following mode)
electrical power at generator output
(turbine following mode)

Main regulator is
containing two
regulation contour

Dependency which regulation

contour (boiler or turbine load) control
substantial control signals (steam
pressure or electrical power) we
determine two coordinated working

boiler load control control boiler thermal

load, that is coal quantity which have to
distribute over mills and convey to boiler
burning place.

turbine load control controlled value is

turbine valve position, placed between
super heaters and turbine height pressure
chamber and determine steam flow to
turbine moving blade.

Which of these two mode will be in use

depend of many parameters, but in basic
starts from idea: for control value (pressure
or power) which have to change quickly and
frequently usually using turbine load
controller. Boiler load regulation is more
required than turbine load controller by
reason of complicated combustion process
in boiler.

Combustion process in burning place have

big time constants and many disturbances:
coal or air shortage in burning place,
failure equipment in plant, inferior water
supply at boiler,...

From that reasons boiler load control usually

used for values which needed stay constant
for a long time without frequent set point
changing. Turbine is relative fast executive
object related to boiler and that
characteristic determine turbine usage
possibility this objects in coordinated
working mode.

Main controller in boiler coordination mode

(figure 1) contain pressure regulator, which
generate thermal load as output and power
regulator which control position of turbine

Pressure regulator have to preserve

reference pressure during disturbance such
as changing coal calorific value or changing
position of turbine valves.
Coal calorific value representing quantity of
thermal energy released during complete
combusting a unit mass of fuel. This value is
variable and depend of fuel grade

sliding pressure VS constant

pressure Modes

Operation mode of steam turbine depends on the

control concept that is implemented on steam
power plant. Unit's power is generally controlled
by manipulating of steam flow through turbine.
Turbine's steam flow depends on steam pressure
and size of input area through which steam
enters turbine. This area is manipulated (control)
by position of turbine's control valves. Therefore,
there are two operational modes (in general):

- mode with constant pressure in front of

turbine where turbine's pressure is
controlled by changing control valves
position and

mode with sliding pressure in front of

turbine, where control valves are
maintained at some constant position (for
example 80 or 100% opened). In such case
steam pressure is controlled by boiler
control loops (by manipulating coal

Very closely related to this operational

modes are so called "control concepts"
Concept of "boiler leading" means that
steam pressure in front of turbine is
controlled by control valves (constant) while
power output setpoint is associated with
boiler controller that manipulate coal firing.

On the other side, there is "turbine leading"

concept in which, power output setpoint is
associated by control valves and therefore
every demand in power is immediately
followed by changing of control valves
position. Then, steam pressure is controlled
by boiler.

*note that this concept is not fully "sliding

mode" because, control valve position is not
constant, but this concept is usually called
sliding pressure mode, because steam
pressure is changing and boiler pressure
controller needs to adapt to these changes.

Constant pressure implies stable pressure

of the steam generator and main steam line
over the units load range. Meanwhile, the
basic nature of a simple, rotating turbine is
to require less pressure as load and flow
rate are reduced, and if the main steam
pressure is limited to only that required for
each load, this mode is referred to as pure
sliding pressure.

However, when we speak generally of

sliding pressure, we often mean modified
sliding pressure, as shown in Figure 2. This
mode has a limited amount of pressure
throttling to provide a modest amount of
fast-response load reserve. A unit under
constant pressure will have significant load
reserve at any reduced load, due to its
significant pressure throttling or the
availability of admission valve(s).

By opening the throttle valve or an admission

valve, the pressure in the turbine and steam
generator move toward equalization. The
sudden reduction of pressure in the steam
generator prompts an instantaneous expulsion
of steam mass due to the increase in a specific
volume of steam within the confines of the
system, and it provides a temporary load
increase even before the fuel-handling and
-firing system can be loaded to support any
sustained higher load. Pure sliding-pressure
operation does not offer this kind of load or
frequency response and is therefore generally
not practiced.

Fig 2.


A voltage regulator is an electrical
regulator designed to automatically
maintain a constant voltage level.
It may use an electromechanical
mechanism, or passive or active electronic
components. Depending on the design, it
may be used to regulate one or more AC or
DC voltages.

With the exception of passive shunt

regulators, all modern electronic voltage
regulators operate by comparing the actual
output voltage to some internal fixed
reference voltage.

Any difference is amplified and used to

control the regulation element in such a
way as to reduce the voltage error. This
forms a negative feedback control loop;
increasing the open-loop gain tends to
increase regulation accuracy but reduce
stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing
during step changes).

There will also be a trade-off between

stability and the speed of the response to
changes. If the output voltage is too low
(perhaps due to input voltage reducing or
load current increasing), the regulation
element is commanded, up to a point, to
produce a higher output voltage - by
dropping less of the input voltage, if the
output voltage is too high, the regulation
element will normally be commanded to
produce a lower voltage.

However, many regulators have overcurrent protection, so that they will entirely
stop sourcing current (or limit the current in
some way) if the output current is too high,
and some regulators may also shut down if
the input voltage is outside a given range.

Operation of AVR linked to Generators:

AVR is linked with the main stator windings and
the exciter field windings to provide closed loop
control of the output voltage with load
In addition to being powered from the main
stator, the AVR also derives a sample voltage
from the output windings for voltage control
purposes. In response to this sample voltage, the
AVR controls the power fed to the exciter field,
and hence the main field, to maintain the
machine output voltage within the specified
limits, compensating for load, speed,
temperature and power factor of the generator.

A frequency measuring circuit continually

monitors the generator output and provides
output under-speed
protection of the excitation system, by
reducing the output voltage proportionally
with speed below a pre-settable threshold.

Potential Divider and Rectifier takes a

proportion of the generator output voltage
and attenuates it. This input chain of
resistors includes the range potentiometer
and hand trimmer which adjust the
generator voltage. A rectifier converts the
a.c. into d.c. for further processing.

The Amplifier (Amp) compares the sensing

voltage to the Reference Voltage and amplifies
the difference (error) to
provide a controlling signal for the power
devices. The Ramp Generator and Level
Detector and Driver infinitely control the
conduction period of the Power Control
Devices and hence provides the excitation
system with the required
power to maintain the generator voltage
within specified limits.

The Stability Circuit provides adjustable

negative ac feedback to ensure good steady
state and transient performance of the
control system.
The Low Hz Detector measures the period of
each electrical cycle and causes the
reference voltage to be reduced
approximately linearly with speed below a
presettable threshold.

The Synchronising circuit is used to keep

the Ramp Generator and Low Hz Detector
locked to the generator waveform period.

The Low Pass Filter prevents distorted

waveforms affecting the operation of the
Power Control Devices vary the amount of
exciter field current in response to the error
signal produced by the Amplifier.

Suppression components are included to

prevent sub cycle voltage spikes damaging
the AVR components and also to reduce the
amount of conducted noise on the
generator terminals.
The Power Supply provides the required
voltages for the AVR circuitry.