The Skin

Chapter 10 Section 4

The Body’s Tough Covering
• The skin covers the body and prevents the loss of water • Skin protects the body from injury and infection • Skin helps to regulate body temperature, eliminate wastes, gather information about the environment, and produce vitamin D

• Skin helps the body maintain homeostasis, or stable internal conditions, by keeping body temperature steady in spite of changing external conditions. • Blood vessels run through skin and enlarge to increase the amount of blood that flows through them when you become warm, allowing heat to move from your body out • Sweat glands produce perspiration that contains dissolved waste materials • Skin also gathers information from the environment such as pressure, pain, and temperature • Skin cells produce vitamin D in sunlight

The Epidermis

Dead or Alive?

• The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin • The epidermis does not have nerves or blood vessels • Epidermis cells begin life deep in the epidermis and gradually mature and move upward as new cells form beneath • After 2 weeks, cells die and become part of

Protecting the Body • The dead cells form a tough barrier to protect the living cells beneath • As cells fall away, they carry bacteria • Melanin- a pigment that gives kin its color produced deep in the epidermis • Sunlight stimulates the skin to create melanin • Melanin helps protect

The Dermis
• Dermis- lower layer of the skin located below the epidermis and above a layer of fat • Dermis contains nerves and blood vessels, sweat glands, hairs, and oil glands • Pores- openings that carry perspiration from the sweat glands to the surface • Follicles- structures in which strands of hair grow within the dermis • Hair above the is made up of dead cells • Oil that reaches the surface waterproofs hair and helps keep the skin moist

Caring for Your Skin
• Eating a well balanced diet • Drinking water; especially replacing lost fluids due to perspiration • Limit sun exposure- repeated exposure can damage skin cells and cause them to become cancerous • Cancer- a disease in which some cells divide uncontrollably • Sun exposure can cause skin to become leathery and wrinkled • Keep skin clean • Acne- condition of the skin due to bacterial infection that can be difficult to control • Fungi can live on and infect skin (Athlete’s Foot)

Review
• Explain the functions of the skin. • • • What is the role of perspiration in regulating body temperature? • • • Identify the layers of the skin and describe the structures found in each layer.
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• Do you think it is possible to wash your skin too much and damage it as a result?

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