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The Skin

Chapter 10 Section 4
The Body’s Tough Covering
• The skin covers the body and
prevents the loss of water
• Skin protects the body from injury
and infection
• Skin helps to regulate body
temperature, eliminate wastes,
gather information about the
environment, and produce vitamin
• Skin helps the body maintain
homeostasis, or stable internal
conditions, by keeping body
temperature steady in spite of
changing external conditions.
• Blood vessels run through skin and
enlarge to increase the amount of
blood that flows through them when
you become warm, allowing heat to
move from your body out
• Sweat glands produce perspiration that
contains dissolved waste materials
• Skin also gathers information from the
environment such as pressure, pain,
and temperature
• Skin cells produce vitamin D in sunlight
The Epidermis
Dead or Alive?
 Protecting the Body

• The epidermis is the • The dead cells form a

outermost layer of the tough barrier to
skin protect the living
• The epidermis does not cells beneath
have nerves or blood • As cells fall away, they
vessels carry bacteria
• Epidermis cells begin life • Melanin- a pigment
deep in the epidermis that gives kin its
and gradually mature color produced deep
and move upward as in the epidermis
new cells form • Sunlight stimulates
beneath the skin to create
• After 2 weeks, cells die melanin
and become part of • Melanin helps protect
The Dermis
• Dermis- lower layer of the skin located below
the epidermis and above a layer of fat
• Dermis contains nerves and blood vessels,
sweat glands, hairs, and oil glands
• Pores- openings that carry perspiration from the
sweat glands to the surface
• Follicles- structures in which strands of hair
grow within the dermis
• Hair above the is made up of dead cells
• Oil that reaches the surface waterproofs hair
and helps keep the skin moist
Caring for Your Skin
• Eating a well balanced diet
• Drinking water; especially replacing lost fluids
due to perspiration
• Limit sun exposure- repeated exposure can
damage skin cells and cause them to become
• Cancer- a disease in which some cells divide
• Sun exposure can cause skin to become
leathery and wrinkled
• Keep skin clean
• Acne- condition of the skin due to bacterial
infection that can be difficult to control
• Fungi can live on and infect skin (Athlete’s Foot)
• Explain the functions of the skin.

• What is the role of perspiration in regulating body

• Identify the layers of the skin and describe the
structures found in each layer.

• Do you think it is possible to wash your skin too much

and damage it as a result?