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D.O.

We are waiting for Apu.


Same thing in different sentences.

Apu is from India.

Subj
.

We are waiting for Apu, who is from India.

Apu is from India.

Subj

The two sentences can be linked into one.


We use a relative pronoun to substitute the
common item and join the two sentences in one.
We are waiting for Apu , who is fromIndia.
This is the main clause.

This is the subordinate clause.

We are waiting for Apu, who is from India.


Main /independent
clause

Subordinate/Depen
dent clause

If we remove the
subordinate clause from
the sentence, its
meaning is still
complete.

Its meaning is
incomplete if we
remove the main
clause.

LINKING WORDS
RELATIVE
PRONOUNS

WHO / THAT

WHICH / THAT

WHOSE

PREPOSITION
+ WHOM
or
+WHICH
(Formal)

LINKING WORDS
RELATIVE ADVERBS

WHEN / THAT

WHERE

WHY / THAT

Two types of relative clauses:


Non-Defining
Extra information
about a noun in a
sentence
The new Woody Allen
film, which I saw last
week, is very good.
Use commas
Always use a relative
pronoun:
who/whom ,which
whose, where, when

Defining
Essential information
about a noun in a
sentence
Youre the man (that) I
saw last week.
No commas
Can omit pronoun if it is
not the SUBJECT of the
relative clause
That (informal) can
replace which / who/
when / why but not
where, whose or whom

Defining relative clauses


= No commas
A defining relative clause identifies which
person or thing we mean exactly.
It cannot be left out of the sentence or the
meaning of the sentence is incomplete :

Its the book that I read yesterday.


* Its the book. (this sentence is
incomplete)

Defining relative clauses


= No commas

You can omit the pronoun if it is the


OBJECT of the relative clause (if there is
a SUBJECT and a VERB after the
relative pronoun )
Its the book that I read yesterday (omit)
Its the book I read yesterday.
The girl who lives next door is French.
We can never omit WHOSE and WHERE

Non-defining relative
clauses = with commas
This kind of clause gives additional
information about a person or thing.
The sentence still makes sense without
the non-defining relative clause:

My neighbour, who studies


engineering, is very noisy.
My neighbour is very noisy.

Formal / Informal

Non-Defining relative clauses (with


commas) are more common in written
English because they are quite formal.
In spoken English we would probably use
two sentences.
Compare:
Elvis Presley, who has sold over one billion albums, died of
prescription drug abuse. [written]

with
Elvis has sold over a billion albums. He died of an
overdose. [spoken]

Verb + preposition
When the verb is followed by a preposition in
the relative clause we can use two structures:
The woman is a lawyer. I spoke to a woman
Formal: Preposition + rel.pronoun
The woman to whom* I spoke is a lawyer.
(*We cant omit the relative pronoun after a preposition)

Or
Informal: Preposition after the verb
The woman (who) I spoke to is a lawyer.

Relative Adverbs
Time:
when
or
That was the year when/that/in which I
in/on/at
+ which or that
got my degree.

11 September 2001 was the day


when/that/on which peoples attitude
towards terrorism changed.
The adverb (when) can be omitted.
11 September 2001 was the day peoples
attitude towards terrorism changed.

Relative Adverbs
Place: where or

in/on/at + which or that


Thats the factory where/in which they
make chemicals.
Thats the spot where/on which the
battle took place.
The adverb (where) cannot generally be
omitted.

Relative Adverbs:
Reason: why (for which)
I will explain the reasons why /for
which the accident occurred
The adverb (why) can be omitted.
I will explain the reasons the accident
occurred

Relative pronouns
Possessive: whose
It takes the place of his, her, their or a noun
in possessive case s.
Andy Warhol was a pop artist whose paintings
are famous worldwide.(His paintings are
famous)
Charlie, whose sister lives in London,
is travelling to England this summer. (Charlies
sister lives in London).