EVOLUTION

K. GOPI

WHAT IS EVOLUTION?

EVOLUTION
• • • • • Charles Darwin Evidence for evolution Mechanism of evolution Natural selection Speciation

EVOLUTION
• “The origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life” (“The origin”) Charles Darwin 1859 • “On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type” (“The Ternate paper”) Alfred Russel Wallace 1858

CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882) • Traveled around the world
• Observed many species and fossils • Finches in the Galapagos Islands • Why did some species survive while others became extinct? • Natural selection • Published The Origin of Species

GALAPAGOS TURTLES

SUMMARY OF DARWIN’S THEORY
1. Organisms differ; variation is inherited 2. Organisms produce more offspring than survive 3. Organisms compete for resources 4. Organisms with advantages survive to pass those advantages to their children 5. Species alive today are descended with modifications from common ancestors

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
• Structural adaptations – Mimicry – Camouflage

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
• Physiological adaptations – Change in a metabolic process – What do you hear about in the news about some bacteria?

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
• Fossils • Anatomy – Homologous structures – Analogous structures – Vestigial structure – Embryos • Biochemistry

MECHANISM FOR EVOLUTION
• • • • • • • Do populations or individuals evolve? What is a gene pool? How can the gene pool change? Mutation Genetic drift Gene flow Would these things effect a large population or a small population more?

ALL IMAGES: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php

Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

NATURAL SELECTION
• What is natural selection? • The traits that help an organism survive in a particular environment are “selected” in natural selection • Divided into : – Directional – Stabilising – Distruptive

Evolution by Natural Selection
• 1. Variation among individuals • 2. Different survival and/or reproduction • 3. Change in genetic composition of population • 4. Evolution

DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
• Favours one extreme • One end selective advantage • Ex: long necked giraffes, long tailed peacocks, resistance to antibiotics by bacteria

STABILISING SELECTION
• Favours the mean in range of phenotype • In stable environment • The extreme alleles are selected against • Ex: average weight of human babies, sickle cell trait to protect against malaria

DISTRUPTIVE SELECTION
• Favours the extreme phenotypes • The intermediate phenotypes selected against • There will be more than one modal class • Ex: finches with long and short beaks for different food resources

Now it’s your turn – draw stabilizing, directional and disruptive selection

SPECIATION
• Sympatric- between two groups of same environment: behavioural isolation, ecological isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, hybrid isolation • Allopatric-geographical isolation and reproductive isolation

SPECIATION
• Geographic isolation • Reproductiv e isolation

REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
• Fertilisation is prevented (prezygotic) • Zygote fails to develop (postzygotic)

REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
• Prezygotic: habitat isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, behavioural isolation, gametic isolation • Postzygotic: -Low hybrid vigour-no proper development -low hybrid adult viability-failure to thrive and grow properly -hybrid infertility-healthy but infertile

SPECIATION
• Gradualism • Punctuated equilibrium • Divergent evolution
– Adaptive radiation

• Convergent evolution

ADAPTIVE RADIATION – AN EXAMPLE OF DIVERGENT EVOLUTION

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION – WHAT IS AN EXAMPLE?

ASSIGNMENT
Describe types of speciation and isolation Dateline: 8/10/09 Email:gopimckl@gmail.com

THANK YOU

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