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GENETIC CODE

K. GOPI

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DNA
• Double helix
structure
• Adenine, thymine,
cytosine and
guanine
• Genetic code =
sequence of base
pairs that codes
amino acids
(protein)

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
• Formed from
amino acids
(20)
• Variety of
proteins
• Amino acids
joined together
by ribosomes

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GENETIC CODE
• Three bases to code one amino acid
• Triplet code
• 4x4x4 combinations (64)
• Three base sequence is known codon
• Some codon codes for particular amino
acid
• Others beginning or ending of amino
acid
• Non-overlapping and degenerate

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CODON

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NON-OVERLAPPING
CODE…
• UUUAGC
• UUU (phenylalanine) & AGC
(serine)
• Not UUU,UUA,UAG,AGC

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DEGENERATE CODE
• Known as redundant
• Contains more information than it needs
• Final base in triplet is changed; the
mutation still produces the same amino
acid
• Protects from the harmful effect of
mutation

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

• Transcription- formation of
mRNA
• Translation – formation
polypeptide chain

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TRANSCRIPTION3’ 5’

• DNA copied to form mRNA


• Breaking up of the helix
structure (hydrogen bond)
by ‘DNA-directed RNA 3’
polymerase’
• Only 5’ prime DNA
trancribed to Mrna
• Template strand
• RNA polymerase
polymerises the small
nucleotides to form mRNA
5’ 5’
3’
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TRANSCRIPTION3’ 5’
• Each triplet code of DNA-
complementary codon of mRNA
• DNA template read 3’ to 5’ by RNA
polymerase
• RNA syntesised in 5’ to 3’ direction 3’
• Thymine (T) replaced by Uracil (U) in
RNA
• Sense strand (mRNA)
• Antisense strand (DNA template)
• Pass through nuclear membrane to the
cytoplasm (ribosome)

5’ 5’
3’
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TRANSLATION
• Involves tRNA (transfer
RNA) in cytoplasm
• Picks up amino acids from
protoplasm to the surface of
ribosomes
• Each tRNA has a unit of
three bases known anticodon
• Each amino acis has its own
tRNA molecule

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RIBOSOME
• Made of 50 % of ribosomal RNA and
50 % protein
• Ribosomal RNA made in nucleus and
remains in cytoplasm
• Large and small subunit
• Hold together mRNA, tRNA, and
enzymes controlling protein
synthesis

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TRANSLATION
• Start codon- AUG
• Stop codon- UAA, UAC or UGA
• mRNA attached to ribosome,
ribosome will read mRNA from start
codon
• Codes methionine
• tRNA lines up its anticodon alongside
the complementary codon of mRNA

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TRANSLATION
• Hydrogen bond formed and each amino
acids linked together by peptide bonds
• tRNA returns to the cytoplasm to pick up
other amino acid
• Ribosome moves along mRNA until reaching
the stop codon
• Leaving completed polypeptide
• Always starts with methionine
• But removed by enzymes before the
polypeptide becomes part of active protein
(post-transcriptional change)
• Causes variety (25000 genes but 90000
proteins)
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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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THANK YOU

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