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VIRUS & BACTERIA

K. GOPI

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MICROORGANISMS AND
DISEASES

• Infectious diseases are caused by:


pathogens & uncontrollable
natural flora
• Damages tissue directly or by toxin
• Pathogens: viruses, bacteria, fungi,
protoctista and metazoa (worms)

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VIRUS
• Smallest: 50x smaller than bacteria
• Not cells
• Arrangements of genetic material & protein
• invades living cells to reproduce (obligate
intracellular parasites)
• Evolve in adaptive way: withstand drying,
long storage period & resistant towards
most drugs (acyclovir prevents herpes- cold
sore and genital herpes)

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STRUCTURE OF VIRUS
• Geometric shape
• Variation in genetic material, protein coat
(capsid) & presence of envelope
• Capsid- capsomeres,repeated unit to
minimise usage of genetic material &
simple assembly
• Protein coat covered by lipid envelope
(host cell)- easier to pass from cell to cell,
but vulnerable to ether
• Viral DNA or RNA maybe double stranded
or sometimes single stranded

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STRUCTURE OF VIRUS
• Viral DNA template
• mRNA to induce viral protein
synthesis
• DNA virus- small pox,
adenovirus & bacteriophage
• RNA virus- directs synthesis of
reverse transcriptase
• ex: tobacco mosaic virus & HIV

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ATTACHMENTS OF
VIRUSES
• Attach by specific protein
(VAPS)
• Target: protein in host cell
membrane

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LIFE CYCLE OF VIRUS
• Bacteriophages inject only their DNA
into the bacteria cell forming plasmid
• Endocytosis; capsid digested and viral
genetic material released
• Fusing of virus envelope to the host
cell surface
• Vector (plant virus)…>Aphid to pierce
the cellulose wall

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ROUTES OF
INFECTION

• Lysogenic pathway
• Lytic pathway

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LYSOGENIC PATHWAY
• Non virulent ; DNA replicated via division of
host cell, provirus
• mRNA is not produced from viral DNA
because of repressor protein production
• Lysogeny period: virus is a part of
reproducing host cell and dormant
• Activated when host cells are damaged,
repressor protein decreases and virulent

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LYTIC PATHWAY
• Viral genetic materials
replicate independently in the
host
• Mature viruses were made &
host cells burst
• Releasing new viruses
• Virulent and lytic pathway:
process of replicating and
killing cells
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COMPLEX LIFE CYCLE
• Retrovirus, ex: HIV
• Viral RNA
• Translated into DNA by specific
reverse transcriptase in the cytoplasm
of the cell
• Viral DNA passes into nucleus: inserted
into host DNA
• Viral mRNA and new viral RNA is made
• Leaves the cell via exocytosis

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BACTERIA
• Structure; refer to
prokaryote notes
• Gram positive and Gram
negative

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GRAM NEGATIVE

• Thinner layer of
peptidoglycan &
without
presence of
techoic acid

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GRAM POSITIVE
• Thick later of peptidoglican
with the presence of
techoic acid
• Crystal violet in the stain
binds to the teichoic acid
and resist decolourising
• Leaving the positive & blue
colour

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CLASSIFYING
BACTERIA
• Gram staining
• Shape- spherical (cocci), Rod shaped
(bacilli), twisted (spirilla) and comma
shaped (vibrios)
• Respiratory requirements-obligate
aerobes (O2), facultative
anaerobes ( use O2 but can manage
without it) and obligate anaerobes
(absence of O2)

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REPRODUCTION OF
BACTERIA
• Asexual and
sexual
reproduction
• Asexual- binary
fission (every 20
mins)
• Sexual-
transformation,
transduction &
conjugation
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BINARY FISSION
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THANK YOU

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