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By Prof. R.B.P. Singh Head, Department of Geography, Patna university, Patna
Ø Urbanization is a phenomenon of population change and a dominant process of spatial reorganization of population. Ø Urbanization has no precise meaning and definition it means different things in different countries, and the united nation has come to accept the division between urban and rural population as necessarily arbitrary and best left to the discretion of the countries conserved (U. N demographic year book ,1952) Ø The distinction between urban and rural, therefore, continues to be artificial, programmatic and amorphous (carter,
EXISTING TREND OF URBANIZATION
Ø This process of urbanization leads to urban growth and 50% population of the world was found living in urban areas (2007) Ø Urban population in 2007 3.3 billion urban population by 2050, 6.4 billions this means about 70% population of the world were be living in urban areas Ø China India and USA together have 35% urban population of the world (2007) Ø Out of 25 countries having largest size of urban population. Ø Seven have urban level from 27% to 50% Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan
Dynamics of urban growth:
The rural to urban migration and the urbanization are:
Ø Associated with shift in the labour force from the agricultural sector to the urbanized industrial sector. Ø Associated with shift in the labour force from the rural agricultural sectors to urban informal sectors. Ø Associated with shift in the labour force from agricultural sector to construction and transportation sector. Ø Associated with shift of rural poor to the sector of urban poor
Other forms of shift:
Ø Rural rich developed a tendency of two-leg economy. Ø Rural-unrest compelled large size & medium size land holders to shift to urban areas. Ø Seasonal shift caused greater swelling of population in dry reason in comparison to wet season. Ø En block shift as a second step migration of landless and tiny farmers. Ø Matrimonial relation principally brought women in the urban areas. Women rarely go to village (bhagat,2005). Ø Educational awareness has also brought young groups to urban centres. Ø Even rural disabled also move to urban areas.
All these have caused phenomenal growth of urban population in developing countries after 1970
Percent of urban population in some selected countries:
Sl. no. country 1. Gabon 2. Nigeria 3. Congo 4. Angola 5. Haiti 6. Sudan 7. Ghana 8. Cameron 9. Djibouti 10. Gambia 11.. Liberia 2010 86.0 49.8 54.3 58.5 49.5 45.2 36.4 40.7 65.0 58.1 61.5 1990 69.1 35.3 62.1 37.1 28.5 26.6 51.5 58.4 88.1 38.3 45.0
Source: human development report 2009
Large size cities and capital cities attract more migrants:
It has emerged as a global trend. There is a crash for making an entry in metropolitan and capital cities in developing countries. Metropolitan cities provide informal sector employment for subsistence. All capital cities are getting more investment providing some amount of both formal and informal job opportunities. Administrative security is another factor which causes inflow of rural population.
Growth of megacities:
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. year 1950 1970 1980 2001 2007 World total Developed Developing countries countries 01 04 07 17 19 01 03 03 04 04 01 04 13 15
source: UNO report,2008
Regional pattern of megacities in 2007:
Sl. no. continents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Asia Latin America North America Africa Europe
SOURCE:UNO REPORT 2008
Megacities 11 4 2 1 1
ØBy 2025, there may be 27 megacities. ØMegacities have 4% population of the world i.e. one out of is living in megacities
Percent of total population in capital cities
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cities Mexico city Buenos Aires Santiago lima Havana Cairo Lagos Dhaka Percent 20.3 38.0 35.0 28.0 19.0 10.0 8.0 7.0
Calculated by the author on the basis of population of 2000
Ø Presently there are three megacities accommodating about 39 percent urban population of India. People have come from all parts of India. they are culturally cosmopolitan and exhibit a true sense of cultural symbiosis and making unity in the midst of diversity. Ø If the present trend of urbanization continues then 46 percent of the total population will be in urban areas by 2030 and cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune and Surat may become megacities.
Nature of migration in India:
Migrants 2001 in millions Intra-district 193.5 Inter-district 74.6 Inter-state 41.1 International 5.1 migrants All migrants 314.3 Total 1028.6 population Percent distribution 61.6 (2001) 23.7 13.1 1.6 100.0 Growth rate in percent(199137.0 2001) 26.3 53.6 -13.4 34.7 21.4
rce: census of India 2001, census commissioner & registrar General, India, New Delh
Some interesting insights on Migration are:
Ø During the reporting period,30% reported as migrants by place of birth. Ø During previous decade (1991-2001), the number of migrants in India (excluding J&K) rose by 32.9%, the total number of migrants by place of last residence in India (excluding J&K) grew by 34.7%. Ø High growth (53.6%) among inter-state migrants. Ø Total migrants by last residence(0-9 years) accounted to 98.3 millions. Ø 43.8% moved due to marriage, 21.0% with their households, 14.7% migrated due to work,6.7% moved after their birth, 3% educational purposes,1.2% for business and 9.7% for specified other regions . Ø About 42.4 m Migrants out of total 65.4 millions female migrants cited marriage as a reason for migrants among mails the most important reason for migration was ‘work/Employment’, 12.3 million out of 32.8 million total male migrants migrated due to this reason. Ø During the decade, out of the urban growth 30.3%,
Ø If one takes away those migrants who moved due to marriage, the total number of migrants falls from 98.3 million to 55.2 million total number among mails and females were 32.2 millions and 22.9 millions respectively. Ø Migration streams (during the last decade) . Ø Rural to rural migration within the country: 53.3 million. Ø Rural to urban migration : 20.5 million. Ø Urban to rural migration:6.2 million. Ø Urban to urban migration 14.3 millions. Ø Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) where the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the states Ø The total number of inter states migrants was 42.3milliuons and those who were born aboard account for 6.1 million. About 97% of
Directional change in rural urban migration: Before independence:-
Ø Inter state migration become more dominant Hindi belt emerged as the principle source region Ø The population entering Bihar was 364, 337 and that exiting the state was more than three times, higher at 12,26,839. in contrast the incoming population for Gujarat was 7.2 lakhs while out going was only 3.1 lakhs (census report 1991)
Ø Source and destination were changed Ø Delhi and its surrounding, greater Mumbai, Pune, Surat, Jaipur, Ahmadabad. Bhopal., Indore, and even smaller industrial center of Gujarat, Maharashtra , daman and Diu, and Silwassa of Dadar nager Haweli attracted Hindi belt rural unskilled worker on large scale. there was stream like migration to Delhi and Mumbai region Ø Rural tribes and non tribes of Orissa Jharkhand Chhattisgarh and M.P also moved to industrial towns. Ø The importance of Howrah Kolkata region relatively decline as destination region
Why do they migrate:
1.Inadequate job in rural sector 2.Poverty 3.Cast discrimination 4.Rural unrest 5.Growth interest in urban real estate property 6.To improve social status by constructing house buying TV/Radio sets, mobile etc. 7.To educate children. 8.Security reason 9.Huge job opportunities in informal sector 10.Even invalids and disabled are able to survive in the midst urban scope
Rural - urban migration: A secular shift of population
Migrants belong to all cast and religions
groups. Within village, there are social distance Once reach to the town/city social divide line disappears Community feeling emerges and even line together in the same building/room in the slums of Delhi, Mumbai, and Surat Metropolitan slums have emerged as cultural symbiosis having poor of all region, religion caste and creeds making dwelling areas of rural-urban migrants as the dwelling area of migrants having
Major cities and hut dwellers
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. city Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Chennai Nagpur Faridabad Total population 164 (in lakh) 129 132 66 21 11 Hut & sharing dwells 54 20 15 8 7 3
Source: slum free cities document: 2020 Planning commission, govt. of India, 2009
About 100 crore live in huts and slums in
the world It is estimated that such dwellers will be about 200 crore in 2030. About 15% urban population of 600 towns and cities live in huts and shanties Housing shortage for weaker section continues to increase. it was only 2.8 millio0n which increased to 10.2 million in 1991 and 24 million 2007.
Rural urban migration at present, may be a
positive phenomenon provided migrants are regulated and managed properly. The regulated are managed migrants can reap benefits for both the sending and to the receiving regions however, city region development approach and PURA like programmers need to be extended all over the country to minimized rural urban gap and to bring sustainability in ruralurban ethos
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