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Civil Design Aspects in MHP

Intake sizing

1.

Orifice intake
Choose an appropriate orifice for design flow of 200 l/s. The weir
height has been set at 0.7 m above the river bed level. The estimated
flood level (~ 1/20 year) is 1.9 m above the river bed level. Also size a
spillway to spill excess flows during the flood.

1.9 m
Weir crest

0.7 m
Datum

0.2

Intake sizing

Q = (0.20)x1.15 = 0.23 m3/s (trashrack, seepage)


Set V = 1.1 m/s, Orifice Area (A) = Q 0.23 0.21 m 2
V

1.1

A 0.21

1.05 m
Set orifice height = 0.2 m, calculate width W, W
H 0.2
Set W = 1.1 m
Set orifice bottom 0.2 m above datum (to minimize entry of bed load)

Set water level at headrace canal hh = 0.5 m above the datum, i.e., 0.1 m above top
of orifice to ensure submerged condition.

Flood level (1.90 m)


Normal Water level (0.7 m)
hh=0.5

1.1 m

Orifice

0.4 m

0.2 m
River bed (0.00)/Datum

Q AC 2 g ( hr hh )

Intake sizing

Assume C = 0.6 for roughly finished masonry


Q 0.22 x 0.6 2 x9.81(0.7 0.5) 0.262 m 3 / s

OK!!

Q 0.262

1.19 m / s
A 0.22

Velocity in Acceptable Range

Flood conditions
- Assume same water level in canal
hr hh 1.9 0.5 1.4 m
Q flood 0.22 x0.6 2 x9.81(1.9 0.5) 0.692 m 3 / s

Flood flow will be less as canal water level will be higher


Size spillway to divert excess flow

Headrace

Headrace canal
size the initial headrace canal to convey the flow from the intake sized
earlier.
Revisit data
Q = 0.262 m3/s
depth = 0.5 m (in canal, design flow)
size width and a practical slope that fits the ground profile

Choose stone masonry canal,


- n = 0.017
- Canal width, W = 1.1 m (equal to orifice width)
- Water depth, h = 0.5 m set earlier (assuming canal bed at datum)
Find required slope using Mannings equation.

1
Q AR 2 3 S ,
n

Qn
S
2 3
AR

A Wxh 1.1x0.5 0.55 m 2

Headrace

A
0.55
R
0.262 m
P 2 x0.5 1.1

0.262 x0.017
Qn

23
23
AR
0.55 x(0.262)
OR 1 / 2556

Almost always possible in MH!!

Flood Conditions,
Qflood= 0.692 m3/s, Find water depth in canal during flood flow
1
Q AR 2 3 S :
n
1
1.1xh
0.692
(1.1xh) x

0.017
1
.
1

2
h

23

0.00039

H unknown, Need to solve by trial & error!!!

0.00039

Headrace

Trail Value of h (m)

Trial & Error


Corresponding Q (m3/s) = 0.692 m3/s?

1.0

0.640 low!

1.2

0.800 High

1.1

0.720 OK

Revisit Orifice equation (flood condition):


Q AC 2 g (hr hh )

hr = 1.9m, hh = 1.1m,
Orifice Area, A=0.22 m2
Flood flow in canal Q flood 0.22 x0.6 2 x9.81(1.9 1.1) 0.523 m 3 / s
So flood flow through the orifice is 0.523 m3/s, i.e., less than 0.692
m3/s assumed!

Headrace

For Q = 0.523 m3/s, water depth in canal:

1
1.1xh
0.523
(1.1xh) x

0.017
1.1 2h

23

0.00039

By trial & error, water depth in canal h h =0.85 m

However, now driving head in orifice has increased (h r - hh1.9 m


0.85 m = 1.05 m), so flow will be more than 0.523 but less than 0.692
m3/s. You can keep on iterating until you are fully satisfied.

Headrace
Spillway
Water depth in canal: (1.1 + 0.85)/2 = 0.98 m
Flow, Q : (0.692 + 0.523)/2 = 0.608 m 3/s
Spilling capacity required: 0.608 0.230 =0.378 m 3/s

Set spillway length = 2.0 m


Spillway overtop head required:

hovertop

CW xLweir

0.667

0.378

1
.
6
x
2
.
0

0.667

0.241 m

If 300 mm freeboard is allowed over the canal, it will be sufficient


to allow spillage.

Headrace
4.0 m
1.3 m

0.98 m

0.74 m

0.80 m

Canal width = 1.1 m


Note: required design depth = 0.5 m only, so add another
spillway by reiteration
Note: this headrace will be too expensive if continued
downstream. Therefore, resize headrace downstream of
spillway with design flow only.
Suppose downstream headrace alignment has a ground
slope of 1:500 (based on survey). Size the headrace canal
accordingly. Note Q = 0.230 m3/s.
Set canal width, W = 600 mm =0.6 m

Headrace

Now solve Mannings equation by trial & error


23
0.230

1
0.6 xh
(0.6 xh) x

0.017
0.6 2h

1
500

Canal depth, h =0.46 m.


Note that if a width of 600 mm is not feasible at site, choose a
different value and calculate depth by trial & error!
Final Sketch

300 mm
min

240 mm
460 mm

600 mm

i = 1/500

Sizing of headrace pipe

Headrace

Headloss in intake pipes at design flow


Pipe roughness for HDPE, k =0.06 mm
k 0.06 mm

0.0002
d 262 mm

From Moody chart, f=0.0166

Flow in each pipe

1.2Q 1.2 x0.08

0.366
d
0.262

Headrace

Headrace
l V2
Calculate friction loss f
d 2g
hwall loss

fl 0.08Q 2 0.0166 x 40 x0.08 x0.82

0.27 m
5
5
d
0.262

Calculate

hinlet loss

inlet loss, K

entrance

= 0.8 in this case (see Table)

1.5V 2
1.52
K entrance x
0.8 x
0.09 m
2g
2 x9.81

Calculate

hexit loss

exit loss, Kexit=1.0

V2
1.52
K exit x
1.0 x
0.11 m
2g
2 x9.81

Headrace

Total Head loss during design flow


= 0.27 m + 0.09 m + 0.11 m = 0.47 m
Design water level in Gravel trap:
Should be 0.47 m + 10% (safety
margin) = 0.52 m below low river level at
intake.

0.52 m

Headrace

Check Flood Flow conditions


Flood level is 1.5 above low river level
Allow 0.2 head over the spillway
Net head on intake pipes = 0.52 + 1.5 0.2
= 1.82 m
Since unknowns are Q & V, can solve by trial & error only !!

Try Q = 200 l/s in each pipe


1.2Q 1.2 x0.2

0.916
d
0.262
F = 0.0148 (from Moody Chart)
0.0148 x 40 x 0.08 x 0.20 2
hwall loss
1.53 m
5
0.262

4Q
4 x 0.2
V

3.71 m / s
2
2
d
x 0.262

Inlet & exit losses

Headrace
hinlet & exitlosses

3.712
(0.8 1.0) x
1.26 m
2 x9.81

Total loss + 1.53 + 1.26 = 2.79 m


This is more than 1.82 m (actual loss), assumed flow is
1/ 2
too high! Try interpolation!!
1.82

Q 200 l / s x

2.79

162 l s

Check for Q = 162 l/s in each pipe


1.2Q 1.2 x 0.162

0.733
d
0.262

F = 0.0150 Moody chart)


hwall loss

0.0150 x 40 x 0.08 x 0.162 2

1.02 m
0.2625

4Q
4 x 0.162

2.97 m / s
2
2
d
x 0.262

Inlet & exit losses


hinlet & exitlosses

Headrace
2.97 2
( 0 .8 1 .0 ) x
0.81 m
2 x9.81

Total loss = 1.02 m + 0.81 m = 1.83 m


Close to actual loss of 1.82 m, OK!
Thus, flood flow through the two intake pipes are 2 x 162 l/s = 324 l/s.

Spillway at gravel trap


1.5
Q

C
Lh
W
Weir equation:
Cw = 1.6 (Broad Crested weir)
Q
0.324
h = 0.20 m assumed earlier
L

Cw h1.5

1.6 x0.21.5

2.26 m

Note that the gravel trap should be sited sufficiently


downstream of the intake to ensure that the gravel trap
spillway is above the max river flood level at that point.
In this case 40 m is more than sufficient.

Gravel Trap & Settling Basin


Galkot MHP Plant:
Q = 455 l/s
H = 20 m
Width of headrace, B = 0.6 m
Trap particle size down to ~ 2 mm
Flow (horizontal velocity) required: V = 0.6 m/s

0.455
Area required: A
0.758 m 2
0.6
Q
V

for a flow depth of 0.5 m, Find


0.758
B

1
.
5
m
Basin width (B):
0. 5

Using L = 3 x headrace canal width (B = 0.6 m)


L = 1.8 m, Say 2.0 m
Therefore, for gravel trap: Width B = 1.5 m, Length L = 2.0 m, Depth d =
0.5 m

Settling Basin Basic theory


Ideal

basin:
A particle entering water
surface at beginning of
settling basin (point X)
should reach the end of the
basin (point Y) if it is to be
settled
L = settling zone length
B = Settling zone width
y = mean water depth or
hydraulic depth
t = time for particle to
travel L (s)
Vp = horizontal velocity
w = fall velocity (from
Shields graph)
Q = discharge

Shields Graph

fall velocity of Quartz spheres in still water

Settling Basin Basic theory

For particle to reach from X to Y, these


equations have to be valid:

y wt (a)
L V p t (b)
Q BV p y (c)
From a, b, c, Q BLw

Q = BLw
Therefore, for a given Q, & particle size to be settled, ideal
dimensions can be determined:
In practice larger basin required because:
- turbulence in basin
- imperfect flow distribution at entrance &
- converge flow at exits, curves etc.
Thus, required plan area should be doubled.

Settling Basin Basic theory


Smooth transition
L/B = 4 10
a can by 27o (1:2) max.
dlimit
h < 10 m, dlimit = 0.3 0.5 mm
10 m < h < 100 m,
dlimit = 0.2 0.3 mm
h >100 m, dlimit = 0.1 0.2 mm

If not increase X-sectional area

Q
0.44 d lim it
By

Now calculate required settling basin dimensions


Since 10 m < h < 100 m, set min. particle size to be settled, dlimit = 0.3
mm
Assuming mean temperature 15oC during high flow: From Shields
graph, fall velocity w = 0.037 m/s for dlimit = 0.3 mm

Galkot Settling Basin


L/B = 2Q/w = 2 x 0.455/0.037 = 24.6 m2 Set B = 2.5 m
L = 24.6/2.5 = 9.8 m, set L = 10.0 m.; L/B = 4 ok!
Inlet profile: due to space constraint - set a= 26o or 1:2

Inlet length
Linlet

B B'
2.5 0.6

2 tan( ) 2 tan(26)

Linlet = 1.84 m, set L inlet = 2 m


Check required depth of settling basin, y
Max horizontal velocity:
V 0.44 d lim it 0.44 0.3 0.24 m / s
Q
0.445
y

0.76 m
BV 2.5 x0.24

Galkot Settling Basin


Sediment

storage requirement

Galkot Settling Basin

Assume sediment concentration, C = 2 kg/m3


Sdensity= 2600 kg/m3
Pfactor = 0.5
Flushing frequency, T = 8 hrs(12 hrs recommend)
Sload = QxTxC = 0.455 x 8 x 60 x 60 x 2
= 26,208 kg
26208
Sediment volume: Vse dim ent Sload

20.16 m 3
S density xPfactor

2600 x 0.5

Actual basin Area = LB = 10 x 2.5 = 25 m2


Required Storage depth: y storage = Vsediment/Basin area = 20.16/25 = 0.81 m
Linlet = 2m,
Basin Length, L = 10 m
Basin width, B = 2.5 m
Required basin depth = y + y storage + freeboard
= 0.76 + 0.81 + 0.3 = 1.87 m ~ 1.9 m.

Galkot Settling Basin

No outlet zone since structure is combined with forebay


Size flush pipe
1. Divert incoming flow + water volume in basin, thus emptying
2. Design flow can be emptied from the basin floor without raise in
water level

6Qdesign

hba sin h flush

(1)

1/ 2

4Qdesign

1/ 2

h flush

( 2)

C = orifice constant = ~1.9 (thk<< dia)

hbasin = 1.3 m, allowing ~ 0.3 m of sediment deposit at floor & 0.3


freeboard.
hflush = 1.7 m
From equation 1: d = 0.41 m or 410 mm
From equation 2: d = 0.386 m or 386 mm
400 mm diameter used as this was the penstock diameter.

Forebay - design criteria


- Trashrack, V < 0.6
m/s, 3:1 slope
- Spillway must
- Air vent
- Some clearance for
penstock at bottom
- 15 second flow
storage volume
above penstock pipe

Penstock

Jhankre example
Design flow: 450 l/s, Gross head: 180 m
Penstock: length 550 m, 6 bends, < 20o, r/d = 4 in all cases
- Material: Mild Steel, to be site welded
- Turbine: 3 units Pelton, 2 jets/unit
Size the penstock:

Empirical Equation:

d 41Q

0.38

D in [mm] & Q in [l/s]

d 41x 450
D = 418 mm, Say 420

0.38

Penstock

Roughness Value: k = 0.1 for uncoated MS


k 0.1

0.00024
d 420

From Moody Chart, f = 0.015

1.2Q 1.2 x0.450

1.29
d
0.42

Velocity in Pipe, V

Penstock
4 x0.450

3.25m / s
A 0.420 2

Head loss in pipe, h loss =

l v2
f
d 2g

550 3.252
h loss = 0.015 x 0.42 x 2 x9.81 10.57m

For
kbend

R
4 & 200 ,
d
0.20 0.15

0.175
2

bend loss k

bend

v2
2g

3.252
6 x0.175 x
0.57 m
2 x9.81

v2
3.252
Inlet loss 0.5 2 g 0.5 x 2 x9.81 0.27 m

Kloss = 0.5 (for Kloss & Kbend see Table next page)
Total loss = 10.57 m + 0.57 m + 0.27 m
= 11.41 m or 6.34%

Penstock

Actual diameter = 450 mm,


Total loss = 8.1 m, 4.5%
Plate width & Practical
Reasons!

A more detailed analysis:


Power gained (increased dia. 420 mm
to 450 mm) = (11.11 -8.1) x
0.450x9.81x0.6 = 8 kW
Annual energy gained = 8 x 24 x 364
x 0.4 = 27,955 kWh
Annual incremental income @ Rs
6/unit = Rs. 163,730

Penstock

Is this gain worth the increase in dia. By 30 mm?


Calculate NPV of Benefits,
discount rate i = 10%,
Economic live, n = 15 years
1 i n 1
Annual income, A = Rs. 163,730 NPV
benefit A
n
i

Or NPV benefits = Rs.1,245, 343

Decision should now based on NPV Costs!!!


NPV costs:
Additional costs required for 450 mm dia, assume average thickness =
4.5 mm
Additional weight (length 550 m) = (0.450 0.420) x 4.5 x7.85x550=
1831 kg
@ Rs 200/kg (market price, fabrication, transport, site welding &
installation)
NPV costs = NRs. 366,200 < NPV benefits of NRs. 1,245,343 so 450
dia OK.

Penstock

Thickness calculations:
- Revisit data:
Length, l = 550 m, Gross head = 180 m, Diameter, d = 450 mm
Steel = IS-2062, UTS (S) = 400 x 10 6 MPa, E = 200 x 109 MPa
Site welding decided
- Note: Pipe is long, so economical to decrease thickness with head.

Start from the bottom


-Try thickness, t = 6 mm
Calculate wave velocity, a

1440
2.1 x109 x d

1
E xt

1440

2.1 x 109 x 0.450

1
200 x 109 x 6

1000

1077 m / s

Penstock

4Q
4 x0.450

2.83 m / s
Velocity, V
2
2
d
x(0.450)

Surge head, n = 6, since six nozzles

hsurge

aV 1 1077 x 2.83 1

x
x 52 m
g n
9.81
6

Total Head

htotal hgross hsurge 180 m 52 m 232 m


Selected thickness

teffective

1.0 3.55 mm
1.1x1.2

Corrosion
Welding

Rolling

Safety Factor: S .F .

Penstock
t
xS
(3.55 1000) x 400 x10
effective

5 x htotal x 10 x d

5 x 232 x 103 x 0.450

S.F. = 2.72 > 2.5 OK, since:


Experienced staff at site
Slow closing valve
Pipes were pressure tested

At what static head can the thickness be decreased to 5 mm?


a

1440
2.1 x10 x d

1
E xt

V = 2.83 m/s (same Q & d)

1440

2.1 x 109 x 0.450

1
5
200 x 109 x

1000

1033 m / s

Effective thickness

Safety Factor (S.F.)

S .F .

teffective x S
3

5 x htotal x 10 x d

Or , htotal

Penstock
5

teffective

, htotal

1.1x1.2

1.0 2.79 mm

teffective x S
S .F . x 5 x 103 x d

(2.79 1000) x 400106

182 m
3
2.72 x 5 x 10 x 0.450

Calculate Surge Head

hsurge

Why?

aV 1 1033 x 2.83 1

x
x 50 m
g n
9.81
6

Penstock

Static head at which thickness can be changed from 6 mm


to 5 mm

hstatic htotal hsurge 182 m 50 m 132 m


Penstock

C L turbine

5 mm Thk
F.S. = 2.72

Static head =132 m

6 mm Thk Static head =180 m


F.S. = 2.72

Repeat process for change in pipe thickness from 5 mm


to 4 mm & 4 mm to 3 mm

Penstock

Cross flow turbine case- Design Example


- Gross head = 40 m, Design flow = 185 l/s dia = 300 mm,
penstock length = 70 m, welded from flat rolled steel
- S = 320 x 106 N/mm2
Select wall thickness.

Calculate flow velocity in pipe


Q
4Q
4 x0.185
V

2.62 m / s
2
2
A d
x(0.300)

Try thickness, t = 4 mm
a

1400
2.1 x109 x d

1
E xt

1400

2.1 x 109 x 0.300

1
200 x 109 x 4

1000

1047 m / s

Penstock

Critical time: Tc 2l 2 x70 m 0.13 s


a

1047 m s

Try closure time T = 5 sec (practical)

lV

ghgross xT

70 x 2.62

9.81x 40 x5

0.0087 1

hsurge hgross x K 40 x 0.0087 3.7 m, Say 4 m

4 m surge for 40 m gross head is 10% surge head, thus 20% rule is
conservative

htotal hgross hsurge 40 m 4 m 44 m


teffective

S .F .

1.0 2.03 mm
1.1x1.2

teffective x S
5 x htotal

2.03 1000) x 320 x106

9.84 High!!
3
3
x 10 x d
5 x 44 x 10 x 0.300

Try 3 mm Thickness
1400

Penstock
978 m / s

2.1 x 109 x 0.300

1
3
200 x 109 x

1000

2l 2 x70 m
Tc
0.14 s

a
978 m s

Try closure time, T = 5 sec

lV

ghgross xT

70 x 2.62

9.81x 40 x5

0.0087 1

hsurge hgross x K 40 x 0.0087 3.7 m, Say 4 m


3
t

1.0 1.27 mm
htotal 44 m
effective
1.1x1.2
S .F .

teffective x S
5 x htotal

(1.27 1000) x 320 x106

6.16 High!!
3
3
x 10 x d
5 x 44 x 10 x 0.300

Note:
2 mm pipe would also be theoretically OK,but it can buckle and get
damaged during transport. So use 3 mm!

Anchor block
Any

gravity structure needs to be stable


against 3 external forces
- sliding
- Bearing or sinking
- Overturning

Anchor block

Anchor block
Design
-

example
Pipe diameter: 450 mm
Pipe thickness: 4 mm
hgross: 60 m, hsurge: 48 m, a = i = 13o, b=25o
Distance to u/s support pier = 4 m
Distance to d/s support pier = 2 m
Distance to upstream exp. Joint = 60 m & has 8
support piers, d/s exp joint close ~ 1 m
L1u = 2 m, L1d = 2 m, L = 60 m (L4u)
Soil type stiff clay

Thumb

Anchor block

rule for P < 20 KW & h < 60 m


i. Straight section:
Place 1 anchor block every 30 m by keying 1 m 3 of concrete for every 300
mm pipe dia.
e.g., if dia = 200 mm, place 1x (200/300) = 0.67 m 3 block at 30 m interval
If dia = 400, place 1x (400/300) = 1.33 m3 block at 30 m interval
ii. Bends

< 45o
Double the concrete volume than for straight section
e.g., if dia=200 mm, bend = 20 o
Anchor block volume=2x(200/300) =1.33 m 3

iii. bends > 45o


Treble the concrete than for straight section
e.g., dia. = 350 mm, Bend = 58o
Volume required = 3 x (350/300) = 3.5 m 3
Note: 1 anchor block every 30 m even if there is not a bend at this length.

Anchor block Examples