Civil Design Aspects in MHP
Intake sizing
1.
Orifice intake
Choose an appropriate orifice for design flow of 200 l/s. The weir
height has been set at 0.7 m above the river bed level. The estimated
flood level (~ 1/20 year) is 1.9 m above the river bed level. Also size a
spillway to spill excess flows during the flood.
1.9 m
Weir crest
0.7 m
Datum
0.2
Intake sizing
Q = (0.20)x1.15 = 0.23 m3/s (trashrack, seepage)
Set V = 1.1 m/s, Orifice Area (A) = Q 0.23 0.21 m 2
V
1.1
A 0.21
1.05 m
Set orifice height = 0.2 m, calculate width W, W
H 0.2
Set W = 1.1 m
Set orifice bottom 0.2 m above datum (to minimize entry of bed load)
Set water level at headrace canal hh = 0.5 m above the datum, i.e., 0.1 m above top
of orifice to ensure submerged condition.
Flood level (1.90 m)
Normal Water level (0.7 m)
hh=0.5
1.1 m
Orifice
0.4 m
0.2 m
River bed (0.00)/Datum
Q AC 2 g ( hr hh )
Intake sizing
Assume C = 0.6 for roughly finished masonry
Q 0.22 x 0.6 2 x9.81(0.7 0.5) 0.262 m 3 / s
OK!!
Q 0.262
1.19 m / s
A 0.22
Velocity in Acceptable Range
Flood conditions
 Assume same water level in canal
hr hh 1.9 0.5 1.4 m
Q flood 0.22 x0.6 2 x9.81(1.9 0.5) 0.692 m 3 / s
Flood flow will be less as canal water level will be higher
Size spillway to divert excess flow
Headrace
Headrace canal
size the initial headrace canal to convey the flow from the intake sized
earlier.
Revisit data
Q = 0.262 m3/s
depth = 0.5 m (in canal, design flow)
size width and a practical slope that fits the ground profile
Choose stone masonry canal,
 n = 0.017
 Canal width, W = 1.1 m (equal to orifice width)
 Water depth, h = 0.5 m set earlier (assuming canal bed at datum)
Find required slope using Mannings equation.
1
Q AR 2 3 S ,
n
Qn
S
2 3
AR
A Wxh 1.1x0.5 0.55 m 2
Headrace
A
0.55
R
0.262 m
P 2 x0.5 1.1
0.262 x0.017
Qn
23
23
AR
0.55 x(0.262)
OR 1 / 2556
Almost always possible in MH!!
Flood Conditions,
Qflood= 0.692 m3/s, Find water depth in canal during flood flow
1
Q AR 2 3 S :
n
1
1.1xh
0.692
(1.1xh) x
0.017
1
.
1
2
h
23
0.00039
H unknown, Need to solve by trial & error!!!
0.00039
Headrace
Trail Value of h (m)
Trial & Error
Corresponding Q (m3/s) = 0.692 m3/s?
1.0
0.640 low!
1.2
0.800 High
1.1
0.720 OK
Revisit Orifice equation (flood condition):
Q AC 2 g (hr hh )
hr = 1.9m, hh = 1.1m,
Orifice Area, A=0.22 m2
Flood flow in canal Q flood 0.22 x0.6 2 x9.81(1.9 1.1) 0.523 m 3 / s
So flood flow through the orifice is 0.523 m3/s, i.e., less than 0.692
m3/s assumed!
Headrace
For Q = 0.523 m3/s, water depth in canal:
1
1.1xh
0.523
(1.1xh) x
0.017
1.1 2h
23
0.00039
By trial & error, water depth in canal h h =0.85 m
However, now driving head in orifice has increased (h r  hh1.9 m
0.85 m = 1.05 m), so flow will be more than 0.523 but less than 0.692
m3/s. You can keep on iterating until you are fully satisfied.
Headrace
Spillway
Water depth in canal: (1.1 + 0.85)/2 = 0.98 m
Flow, Q : (0.692 + 0.523)/2 = 0.608 m 3/s
Spilling capacity required: 0.608 0.230 =0.378 m 3/s
Set spillway length = 2.0 m
Spillway overtop head required:
hovertop
CW xLweir
0.667
0.378
1
.
6
x
2
.
0
0.667
0.241 m
If 300 mm freeboard is allowed over the canal, it will be sufficient
to allow spillage.
Headrace
4.0 m
1.3 m
0.98 m
0.74 m
0.80 m
Canal width = 1.1 m
Note: required design depth = 0.5 m only, so add another
spillway by reiteration
Note: this headrace will be too expensive if continued
downstream. Therefore, resize headrace downstream of
spillway with design flow only.
Suppose downstream headrace alignment has a ground
slope of 1:500 (based on survey). Size the headrace canal
accordingly. Note Q = 0.230 m3/s.
Set canal width, W = 600 mm =0.6 m
Headrace
Now solve Mannings equation by trial & error
23
0.230
1
0.6 xh
(0.6 xh) x
0.017
0.6 2h
1
500
Canal depth, h =0.46 m.
Note that if a width of 600 mm is not feasible at site, choose a
different value and calculate depth by trial & error!
Final Sketch
300 mm
min
240 mm
460 mm
600 mm
i = 1/500
Sizing of headrace pipe
Headrace
Headloss in intake pipes at design flow
Pipe roughness for HDPE, k =0.06 mm
k 0.06 mm
0.0002
d 262 mm
From Moody chart, f=0.0166
Flow in each pipe
1.2Q 1.2 x0.08
0.366
d
0.262
Headrace
Headrace
l V2
Calculate friction loss f
d 2g
hwall loss
fl 0.08Q 2 0.0166 x 40 x0.08 x0.82
0.27 m
5
5
d
0.262
Calculate
hinlet loss
inlet loss, K
entrance
= 0.8 in this case (see Table)
1.5V 2
1.52
K entrance x
0.8 x
0.09 m
2g
2 x9.81
Calculate
hexit loss
exit loss, Kexit=1.0
V2
1.52
K exit x
1.0 x
0.11 m
2g
2 x9.81
Headrace
Total Head loss during design flow
= 0.27 m + 0.09 m + 0.11 m = 0.47 m
Design water level in Gravel trap:
Should be 0.47 m + 10% (safety
margin) = 0.52 m below low river level at
intake.
0.52 m
Headrace
Check Flood Flow conditions
Flood level is 1.5 above low river level
Allow 0.2 head over the spillway
Net head on intake pipes = 0.52 + 1.5 0.2
= 1.82 m
Since unknowns are Q & V, can solve by trial & error only !!
Try Q = 200 l/s in each pipe
1.2Q 1.2 x0.2
0.916
d
0.262
F = 0.0148 (from Moody Chart)
0.0148 x 40 x 0.08 x 0.20 2
hwall loss
1.53 m
5
0.262
4Q
4 x 0.2
V
3.71 m / s
2
2
d
x 0.262
Inlet & exit losses
Headrace
hinlet & exitlosses
3.712
(0.8 1.0) x
1.26 m
2 x9.81
Total loss + 1.53 + 1.26 = 2.79 m
This is more than 1.82 m (actual loss), assumed flow is
1/ 2
too high! Try interpolation!!
1.82
Q 200 l / s x
2.79
162 l s
Check for Q = 162 l/s in each pipe
1.2Q 1.2 x 0.162
0.733
d
0.262
F = 0.0150 Moody chart)
hwall loss
0.0150 x 40 x 0.08 x 0.162 2
1.02 m
0.2625
4Q
4 x 0.162
2.97 m / s
2
2
d
x 0.262
Inlet & exit losses
hinlet & exitlosses
Headrace
2.97 2
( 0 .8 1 .0 ) x
0.81 m
2 x9.81
Total loss = 1.02 m + 0.81 m = 1.83 m
Close to actual loss of 1.82 m, OK!
Thus, flood flow through the two intake pipes are 2 x 162 l/s = 324 l/s.
Spillway at gravel trap
1.5
Q
C
Lh
W
Weir equation:
Cw = 1.6 (Broad Crested weir)
Q
0.324
h = 0.20 m assumed earlier
L
Cw h1.5
1.6 x0.21.5
2.26 m
Note that the gravel trap should be sited sufficiently
downstream of the intake to ensure that the gravel trap
spillway is above the max river flood level at that point.
In this case 40 m is more than sufficient.
Gravel Trap & Settling Basin
Galkot MHP Plant:
Q = 455 l/s
H = 20 m
Width of headrace, B = 0.6 m
Trap particle size down to ~ 2 mm
Flow (horizontal velocity) required: V = 0.6 m/s
0.455
Area required: A
0.758 m 2
0.6
Q
V
for a flow depth of 0.5 m, Find
0.758
B
1
.
5
m
Basin width (B):
0. 5
Using L = 3 x headrace canal width (B = 0.6 m)
L = 1.8 m, Say 2.0 m
Therefore, for gravel trap: Width B = 1.5 m, Length L = 2.0 m, Depth d =
0.5 m
Settling Basin Basic theory
Ideal
basin:
A particle entering water
surface at beginning of
settling basin (point X)
should reach the end of the
basin (point Y) if it is to be
settled
L = settling zone length
B = Settling zone width
y = mean water depth or
hydraulic depth
t = time for particle to
travel L (s)
Vp = horizontal velocity
w = fall velocity (from
Shields graph)
Q = discharge
Shields Graph
fall velocity of Quartz spheres in still water
Settling Basin Basic theory
For particle to reach from X to Y, these
equations have to be valid:
y wt (a)
L V p t (b)
Q BV p y (c)
From a, b, c, Q BLw
Q = BLw
Therefore, for a given Q, & particle size to be settled, ideal
dimensions can be determined:
In practice larger basin required because:
 turbulence in basin
 imperfect flow distribution at entrance &
 converge flow at exits, curves etc.
Thus, required plan area should be doubled.
Settling Basin Basic theory
Smooth transition
L/B = 4 10
a can by 27o (1:2) max.
dlimit
h < 10 m, dlimit = 0.3 0.5 mm
10 m < h < 100 m,
dlimit = 0.2 0.3 mm
h >100 m, dlimit = 0.1 0.2 mm
If not increase Xsectional area
Q
0.44 d lim it
By
Now calculate required settling basin dimensions
Since 10 m < h < 100 m, set min. particle size to be settled, dlimit = 0.3
mm
Assuming mean temperature 15oC during high flow: From Shields
graph, fall velocity w = 0.037 m/s for dlimit = 0.3 mm
Galkot Settling Basin
L/B = 2Q/w = 2 x 0.455/0.037 = 24.6 m2 Set B = 2.5 m
L = 24.6/2.5 = 9.8 m, set L = 10.0 m.; L/B = 4 ok!
Inlet profile: due to space constraint  set a= 26o or 1:2
Inlet length
Linlet
B B'
2.5 0.6
2 tan( ) 2 tan(26)
Linlet = 1.84 m, set L inlet = 2 m
Check required depth of settling basin, y
Max horizontal velocity:
V 0.44 d lim it 0.44 0.3 0.24 m / s
Q
0.445
y
0.76 m
BV 2.5 x0.24
Galkot Settling Basin
Sediment
storage requirement
Galkot Settling Basin
Assume sediment concentration, C = 2 kg/m3
Sdensity= 2600 kg/m3
Pfactor = 0.5
Flushing frequency, T = 8 hrs(12 hrs recommend)
Sload = QxTxC = 0.455 x 8 x 60 x 60 x 2
= 26,208 kg
26208
Sediment volume: Vse dim ent Sload
20.16 m 3
S density xPfactor
2600 x 0.5
Actual basin Area = LB = 10 x 2.5 = 25 m2
Required Storage depth: y storage = Vsediment/Basin area = 20.16/25 = 0.81 m
Linlet = 2m,
Basin Length, L = 10 m
Basin width, B = 2.5 m
Required basin depth = y + y storage + freeboard
= 0.76 + 0.81 + 0.3 = 1.87 m ~ 1.9 m.
Galkot Settling Basin
No outlet zone since structure is combined with forebay
Size flush pipe
1. Divert incoming flow + water volume in basin, thus emptying
2. Design flow can be emptied from the basin floor without raise in
water level
6Qdesign
hba sin h flush
(1)
1/ 2
4Qdesign
1/ 2
h flush
( 2)
C = orifice constant = ~1.9 (thk<< dia)
hbasin = 1.3 m, allowing ~ 0.3 m of sediment deposit at floor & 0.3
freeboard.
hflush = 1.7 m
From equation 1: d = 0.41 m or 410 mm
From equation 2: d = 0.386 m or 386 mm
400 mm diameter used as this was the penstock diameter.
Forebay  design criteria
 Trashrack, V < 0.6
m/s, 3:1 slope
 Spillway must
 Air vent
 Some clearance for
penstock at bottom
 15 second flow
storage volume
above penstock pipe
Penstock
Jhankre example
Design flow: 450 l/s, Gross head: 180 m
Penstock: length 550 m, 6 bends, < 20o, r/d = 4 in all cases
 Material: Mild Steel, to be site welded
 Turbine: 3 units Pelton, 2 jets/unit
Size the penstock:
Empirical Equation:
d 41Q
0.38
D in [mm] & Q in [l/s]
d 41x 450
D = 418 mm, Say 420
0.38
Penstock
Roughness Value: k = 0.1 for uncoated MS
k 0.1
0.00024
d 420
From Moody Chart, f = 0.015
1.2Q 1.2 x0.450
1.29
d
0.42
Velocity in Pipe, V
Penstock
4 x0.450
3.25m / s
A 0.420 2
Head loss in pipe, h loss =
l v2
f
d 2g
550 3.252
h loss = 0.015 x 0.42 x 2 x9.81 10.57m
For
kbend
R
4 & 200 ,
d
0.20 0.15
0.175
2
bend loss k
bend
v2
2g
3.252
6 x0.175 x
0.57 m
2 x9.81
v2
3.252
Inlet loss 0.5 2 g 0.5 x 2 x9.81 0.27 m
Kloss = 0.5 (for Kloss & Kbend see Table next page)
Total loss = 10.57 m + 0.57 m + 0.27 m
= 11.41 m or 6.34%
Penstock
Actual diameter = 450 mm,
Total loss = 8.1 m, 4.5%
Plate width & Practical
Reasons!
A more detailed analysis:
Power gained (increased dia. 420 mm
to 450 mm) = (11.11 8.1) x
0.450x9.81x0.6 = 8 kW
Annual energy gained = 8 x 24 x 364
x 0.4 = 27,955 kWh
Annual incremental income @ Rs
6/unit = Rs. 163,730
Penstock
Is this gain worth the increase in dia. By 30 mm?
Calculate NPV of Benefits,
discount rate i = 10%,
Economic live, n = 15 years
1 i n 1
Annual income, A = Rs. 163,730 NPV
benefit A
n
i
Or NPV benefits = Rs.1,245, 343
Decision should now based on NPV Costs!!!
NPV costs:
Additional costs required for 450 mm dia, assume average thickness =
4.5 mm
Additional weight (length 550 m) = (0.450 0.420) x 4.5 x7.85x550=
1831 kg
@ Rs 200/kg (market price, fabrication, transport, site welding &
installation)
NPV costs = NRs. 366,200 < NPV benefits of NRs. 1,245,343 so 450
dia OK.
Penstock
Thickness calculations:
 Revisit data:
Length, l = 550 m, Gross head = 180 m, Diameter, d = 450 mm
Steel = IS2062, UTS (S) = 400 x 10 6 MPa, E = 200 x 109 MPa
Site welding decided
 Note: Pipe is long, so economical to decrease thickness with head.
Start from the bottom
Try thickness, t = 6 mm
Calculate wave velocity, a
1440
2.1 x109 x d
1
E xt
1440
2.1 x 109 x 0.450
1
200 x 109 x 6
1000
1077 m / s
Penstock
4Q
4 x0.450
2.83 m / s
Velocity, V
2
2
d
x(0.450)
Surge head, n = 6, since six nozzles
hsurge
aV 1 1077 x 2.83 1
x
x 52 m
g n
9.81
6
Total Head
htotal hgross hsurge 180 m 52 m 232 m
Selected thickness
teffective
1.0 3.55 mm
1.1x1.2
Corrosion
Welding
Rolling
Safety Factor: S .F .
Penstock
t
xS
(3.55 1000) x 400 x10
effective
5 x htotal x 10 x d
5 x 232 x 103 x 0.450
S.F. = 2.72 > 2.5 OK, since:
Experienced staff at site
Slow closing valve
Pipes were pressure tested
At what static head can the thickness be decreased to 5 mm?
a
1440
2.1 x10 x d
1
E xt
V = 2.83 m/s (same Q & d)
1440
2.1 x 109 x 0.450
1
5
200 x 109 x
1000
1033 m / s
Effective thickness
Safety Factor (S.F.)
S .F .
teffective x S
3
5 x htotal x 10 x d
Or , htotal
Penstock
5
teffective
, htotal
1.1x1.2
1.0 2.79 mm
teffective x S
S .F . x 5 x 103 x d
(2.79 1000) x 400106
182 m
3
2.72 x 5 x 10 x 0.450
Calculate Surge Head
hsurge
Why?
aV 1 1033 x 2.83 1
x
x 50 m
g n
9.81
6
Penstock
Static head at which thickness can be changed from 6 mm
to 5 mm
hstatic htotal hsurge 182 m 50 m 132 m
Penstock
C L turbine
5 mm Thk
F.S. = 2.72
Static head =132 m
6 mm Thk Static head =180 m
F.S. = 2.72
Repeat process for change in pipe thickness from 5 mm
to 4 mm & 4 mm to 3 mm
Penstock
Cross flow turbine case Design Example
 Gross head = 40 m, Design flow = 185 l/s dia = 300 mm,
penstock length = 70 m, welded from flat rolled steel
 S = 320 x 106 N/mm2
Select wall thickness.
Calculate flow velocity in pipe
Q
4Q
4 x0.185
V
2.62 m / s
2
2
A d
x(0.300)
Try thickness, t = 4 mm
a
1400
2.1 x109 x d
1
E xt
1400
2.1 x 109 x 0.300
1
200 x 109 x 4
1000
1047 m / s
Penstock
Critical time: Tc 2l 2 x70 m 0.13 s
a
1047 m s
Try closure time T = 5 sec (practical)
lV
ghgross xT
70 x 2.62
9.81x 40 x5
0.0087 1
hsurge hgross x K 40 x 0.0087 3.7 m, Say 4 m
4 m surge for 40 m gross head is 10% surge head, thus 20% rule is
conservative
htotal hgross hsurge 40 m 4 m 44 m
teffective
S .F .
1.0 2.03 mm
1.1x1.2
teffective x S
5 x htotal
2.03 1000) x 320 x106
9.84 High!!
3
3
x 10 x d
5 x 44 x 10 x 0.300
Try 3 mm Thickness
1400
Penstock
978 m / s
2.1 x 109 x 0.300
1
3
200 x 109 x
1000
2l 2 x70 m
Tc
0.14 s
a
978 m s
Try closure time, T = 5 sec
lV
ghgross xT
70 x 2.62
9.81x 40 x5
0.0087 1
hsurge hgross x K 40 x 0.0087 3.7 m, Say 4 m
3
t
1.0 1.27 mm
htotal 44 m
effective
1.1x1.2
S .F .
teffective x S
5 x htotal
(1.27 1000) x 320 x106
6.16 High!!
3
3
x 10 x d
5 x 44 x 10 x 0.300
Note:
2 mm pipe would also be theoretically OK,but it can buckle and get
damaged during transport. So use 3 mm!
Anchor block
Any
gravity structure needs to be stable
against 3 external forces
 sliding
 Bearing or sinking
 Overturning
Anchor block
Anchor block
Design

example
Pipe diameter: 450 mm
Pipe thickness: 4 mm
hgross: 60 m, hsurge: 48 m, a = i = 13o, b=25o
Distance to u/s support pier = 4 m
Distance to d/s support pier = 2 m
Distance to upstream exp. Joint = 60 m & has 8
support piers, d/s exp joint close ~ 1 m
L1u = 2 m, L1d = 2 m, L = 60 m (L4u)
Soil type stiff clay
Thumb
Anchor block
rule for P < 20 KW & h < 60 m
i. Straight section:
Place 1 anchor block every 30 m by keying 1 m 3 of concrete for every 300
mm pipe dia.
e.g., if dia = 200 mm, place 1x (200/300) = 0.67 m 3 block at 30 m interval
If dia = 400, place 1x (400/300) = 1.33 m3 block at 30 m interval
ii. Bends
< 45o
Double the concrete volume than for straight section
e.g., if dia=200 mm, bend = 20 o
Anchor block volume=2x(200/300) =1.33 m 3
iii. bends > 45o
Treble the concrete than for straight section
e.g., dia. = 350 mm, Bend = 58o
Volume required = 3 x (350/300) = 3.5 m 3
Note: 1 anchor block every 30 m even if there is not a bend at this length.
Anchor block Examples