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ENVIRONMENTAL

GEOLOGY
TKG 433

GEOHAZARDS (BENCANA GEOLOGI)

Hazard as a Natural Process


Geological process:
Endogene & Exogene

Menyebabkan kerusakan dan kehilangan harta


benda & nyawa, sebab:
Manusia tinggal di dekat kawasan rawan bencana
Perubahan fungsi lahan flooding / landslide

Frequency (recurrence interval) vs magnitude


(amount of energy released);
inversely related
Large flood
less
Volcanic eruption
frequent
Earthquake

Magnitude-Frequency
Concept
Inverse relationship between magnitude
and frequency
Much of the work forming the earth
surface is done by events of moderate
magnitude and frequency

small magnitude, high


frequency

moderate magnitude, moderate


frequency
high magnitude, less
frequency

Benefits of Natural Hazards


River flooding
Nutrient to floodplains
Delivering sediment to beaches
Flushing pollutants

Landslides
Forming dam
produce lakes

Volcanic eruptions
Create new land (Hawaii)
Nutrient-rich volcanic ash

Earthquakes
Fault gouge: groundwater barrier (subsurface dam)
Mountain building

Death and Damage by


Natural Hazards

H = high; M = medium; L = low

Types of Geohazard
Geobencana aktif
(Bencana alamiah)

Geobencana pasif
(Ada campur tangan
manusia)

Earthquake

Landslide/slope failure

Volcano

Subsidence

Hurricane

Flooding

Tornadoes

Erosion

Types of Geohazard

Types of Geohazard

slow

Spe
ed

fast

minor

Size

Slope failure Tsunami


/ rapid
Cyclone
subsidence
Flash flood
(rapid flood)
Slope
Landslide
erosion
Erosion
Slow
subsidence
Soil creep

major
Volcano
Earthquake

Flood

Hazardous Events
(Aswathanarayana, 1995)

Natures Top Ten Most


Destructive Forces
10-6 : Can be avoided and
escaped
1-5 : Faster and very difficult to
escape

10. WATER (Waterfall)


9. GEYSER
8. LIGHTING & THUNDER
7. WILD FIRE
6. RAIN AND FLOODING
5. AVALANCHE
4. OCEAN (giant waves) TSUNAMIS
3. SUPER WIND
2. EARTHQUAKE
1. SUPERVOLCANO

Atlantic Tropical Storms


Names

Disaster Prediction &


Warning
Location
Probability of occurrence
Precursor events
Forecasting
Warning

Disaster Prediction &


Warning

Disaster Prediction &


Warning

Risk Assessment
Risk of particular event =
(probability of that event
occur) x
(consequence of the event)
Consequence = damage to
people, property, economic
activity, public service, etc)
Ex: Large earthquake; low
probability but high
consequence

Acceptable risk
Minimum risk that people
can accept

Human response to hazards


Land-use planning
Avoid build on floodplains or active
landslides
Insurance
Flood insurance
Earthquake insurance
Evacuation
Need sufficient time to evacuate
Disaster preparedness
Training
Artificial control of natural processes
Retaining wall against landslide
Flood control dams; levees; smart tunnel;

Human Response to Hazards

Human Response to Hazards

Pertambahan Penduduk dan


Peristiwa Geobencana
Pertambahan penduduk
menyebabkan manusia terpaksa
tinggal berdekatan dengan
kawasan bencana
Cth1: Mexico City
23 million in 2300km2
City is built on ancient lake beds
September 1985; 7.8 magnitude;
10,000 killed

Cth2: Colombian volcano del


Ruiz
1845 mudflow; killing 1000
1985 another mudflow; 21000
killed

Thank You

Courtesy of:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wan Zuhairi Wan Yaa
Geology Department
The National University of Malaysia