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Centre For Foundation Studies Department of Sciences and Engineering FHMM1014 Mathematics I Chapter 1 Number and

Centre For Foundation Studies Department of Sciences and Engineering

FHMM1014 Mathematics I

Chapter 1 Number and Set

FHMM1014

1

Content

  • 1.1 Real Numbers System.

  • 1.2 Indices and Logarithm

  • 1.3 Complex Numbers

  • 1.4 Set

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1.1 Real Numbers

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Real Numbers

What number system have you been using most of your life?

The real number system.

A real number is any number that has a decimal representation.

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Set of Real Numbers

  • (i) Natural Numbers Counting numbers (also called positive integers) N

= { 1, 2, 3, …… }

Whole Numbers:

W {0}N {0,1,2,3,L }

(ii) Integers

Natural numbers, their negatives, and 0.

Z

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= {……, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, ……}

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Set of Real Numbers

(iii) Rational Numbers,

Q

Numbers that can be represented as

Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b

a b,

where a and b are integers and

b 0.

All rational number can be represented by:

  • (a) terminating decimal numbers

such as

Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b
Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b

5 2 2.5, 1 2 0.5,

Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b

3 4  0.75

  • (b) nonterminating repeating decimal numbers

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such as

Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b

2 3  0.666...,

Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers, Q Numbers that can be represented as a b

2 15 0.1333...

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Set of Real Numbers

(iv) Irrational Numbers

Numbers which cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. They are non-terminating & non-repeating decimal numbers.

I   2 , 5,
I 
2 ,
5,

e ,

, K K

Note: The square roots of all natural numbers which are not perfect squares are irrational.

  • (v) Real Numbers,

R

All rational and irrational numbers.

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Set of Real Numbers

R

   

Q

I

 
 

Z

N

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Real Number Line

Origin

Real Number Line Origin –8 –4 21  4 0  4 8 53 FHMM1014 9

–8

–4

21

4

0

4

8 53
8
53

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Example 1 (a)

Identify each number below as an integer, or natural number, or rational number or irrational number.

8,

21,

0,

  • 23 0.5381,

,
9

Example 1 (a) Identify each number below as an integer, or natural number, or rational number

7,

1.5,

2.005,

0.3333,

0.1234,

,

9
9

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Operations on Real Numbers

  • (i) Commutative Law

* Addition :

a b b a

* Multiplication : ab ba

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Operations on Real Numbers

(ii) Associative Law

* Addition :

a (b c) (a b) c

* Multiplication : a(bc) (ab)c

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Operations on Real Numbers

(iii) Distributive Law

(1)

a(b c) ab ac

(2)

a(b c) ab ac

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Operations on Real Numbers

(iv) Identity Law * Addition :

a 0 0 a a

* Multiplication : a1 1a a

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Operations on Real Numbers

  • (v) Inverse Law

*Addition :

a (a) (a) a 0

*Multiplication :

a

1

a

1

a

a 1

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Example 1 (b)

Example 1 (b)

Identify the law that justifies each of the following statements:

a

)

b

)

2

x

(

x

y

)

2

x

x

x

2

y

(2

x

3)

5

2

x

(3

5)

c

)

2

x

(5

3

x

)

(2

x

5)

3

x

d

)

If

a

b

0,

then

a

 

b

e

)

If

(

x

5)(

x

4)

0

x

5

0

or

x

4

0

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Interval Notations for Real Numbers

For any two different real numbers, a and b, with a < b:

The open interval is defined as the set

(a, b) {x :

a x b}

x

a

b

The closed interval is defined as the set

[a, b] {x :

a x

b}

x

a

b

The half-closed (or half-open) interval is defined as

(a, b] {x :

a x b}

Interval Notations for Real Numbers For any two different real numbers, a and b , with

x

a

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b

or

[a, b) {x :

a x b}

Interval Notations for Real Numbers For any two different real numbers, a and b , with

x

a

b

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Example 2

(i) Express each interval in terms of inequalities, and then graph the interval.

a) [–1, 8) c) (–3, )

b) [2.5, 8]

(ii) Graph each set. (a) (1, 3) [2, 8]

(b) (1, 3) [2, 8]

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Absolute Values

The absolute value (or modulus) of a real number, x

is denoted by

x

x

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.

 

x

if

x 0

x

if

x

0

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Absolute Values

  • x

a

a

x

a

  • x

a

x

 

a

,

x

a

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Example 3

Find the values of x if

(i)

3

x

1

5

(ii)

2

2

x

6

x

,

x

0

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1.2

Indices and Logarithms

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1.2 Exponents

If a is any real number and n is a positive integer, then the nth power of a is:

a

n

a

a

a

(multiply a n times).

• The number a is called the base and n is called the exponent.

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Properties of Exponents

For m,nIntegers

and a, b Real numbers,

i

)

a

m

a

n

a

m

n

v )

1

a

n

n

a

ii

)

a

m

a

n

a

m

n

vi

)

(

ab

)

n

n

a b

n

iii

)

iv

)

(

a

m

)

n

a

mn

0

a

1

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vii )

 

n

b a   

a

n

b

n

viii )

 

b a   

n

   

n

b a   

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Exponential Equation

An equation with a variable in the exponent is called an exponential equation.

Property :

**

If a

0 , a

1, and a

x

a

y

,

then x

y.

**

If

a

0 ,

a

1, and

x y

,

then

a

x

a

y

.

Note : Both bases must be the same!!

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Example 4

Solve

(a)

2

x 16

  • (b) 16

2

x

1

64

x

3

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Example 5

Solve the equation

2

2

x

3

3(2 )

x

16

0.

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Exponential Functions

The exponential function with base a is defined for all real numbers x by:

f (x) a

x

where a > 0 and a ≠ 1.

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Example 6

If

f (x)

2

  • x , find

f (1), f

 

2

and

f

(3)

 

5

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Natural Exponential Base

Definition of e :

  1  

m

1

m

As m becomes larger and larger,

becomes closer and closer to the number e, whose approximate value is 2.71828 ...

e

x

1

x

1!

2

x

2!

3

x

3!

...

n 0

n

x

n

!

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Natural Exponential Base

x e x x is between 2
x
e
x
x
is between
2

and 3 ,

  • y 3

x

x

  • y e y 2

x

Natural Exponential Base x e x x is between 2 and 3 , y  3

**

because e is between 2 and 3.

** Note: Same y-intercept (0, 1). ** For x 0 , the graphs show that 3

x

e

x

x

2 .

** For

x 0, the graphs show that 3

x

e

x

x

2 .

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Graphs of Exponential Function

Graphs of Exponential Function FHMM1014 3232 Mathematics I

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Natural Exponential Functions

Find the values of

e

2

, 3e

0.32

and e

3.8

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Logarithm

Definition of logarithm :

For

a 0,

a 1,

and

x 0,

x

a

n

means

log

a

x

n

**

**

0

1

a a a

1

log

a

1

0

log

a

a

1

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Graphs of Logarithmic Functions

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Properties of Logarithms

i.

log

ii.

log

iii.

log

a

xy

log

a

x

log

a

y

a

x

y

log

a

x

log

a

y

a

x

p

p

log

a

x

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Properties of Logarithms

iv.

log

v.

log

a

c

a

b

log

b

c

log

b

a

1

log

b

a

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Example 7

Solve the equations

(i) log

  • 3 x

  • 2

log

3

x

log

9

27

(ii) 2 log

x

3

log

9

x
x

9

 

4

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Natural Base Logarithms

Common Logarithm

log x n where the base, b 10.

b

Natural Logarithm is when the base,

b e

Note :

log

e x

ln

x

ln

e

1

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Example 8

Solve the equation below.

e

2 x

4

e

x

12

0

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1.3 Complex Numbers

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1.3 Complex Numbers

For example, the equation

2

x

9

0

has no real

solution. If we try to solve this equation, we will get

x  

 9
 9

But this is impossible, since square of any real number is positive. Hence Mathematicians invented the complex number system to solve all quadratic equations.

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Complex Numbers

A complex number :

z a ib

Complex Numbers A complex number : z  a  ib (real part) (imaginary part) where

(real part)

Complex Numbers A complex number : z  a  ib (real part) (imaginary part) where

(imaginary part)

where a, b are real numbers and

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i

 1 or i
1
or
i
  • 2 1.

 

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Conjugates

For the complex number

z a ib

we define its complex conjugate to be:

Conjugates For the complex number z  a  ib we define its complex conjugate to

z a ib

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Operations of Complex Numbers

Addition:

(a ib) (c id) (a c) i(b d)

Subtraction:

(aib)(cid) (ac)i(bd)

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Operations of Complex Numbers

Multiplication:

(aib)(cid) (acbd)i(ad bc)

Division:

(

a

ib

)

(

a

ib

)(

c

id

)

(

ac

bd

)

i bc

(

ad

)

 

 

 
   

(

c

id

)

(

c

id

)(

c

id

)

c

2

d

2

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Example 9

  • 1. (36i) (6 2i) (36) (6 2)i 9 4i

  • 2. (36i) (6 2i) (36) [6 (2)]i  38i

  • 3. (36i)(6 2i) [3(6) 6(2)][3(2) 6(6)]i 30 30i

4.

3

6 i

1

2 i

3

6 i

   

1

2 i  

1

2 i

2 i  

1

9

12 i

5

9

 

5

12

5

i

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Square Root of Negative Numbers

We have

i

2 1 (

 

or

 1
 1

i

)

Therefore, for

2 2 x   9  3 ( 2 2 x  3  i
2
2
x
 
9
3 (
2
2
x
3
i

1)

 

3

i

2

3 i

2

i.e square root of a negative number will have 2 roots, same as square root of a positive number.

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Example 10

1.  3  i 3
1.
3
 i
3

2.

3

 4
 4

3

i 4
i
4

3

2 i

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Example 11

Solve equation

2

x

3

x

6

0

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Argand Diagram

To graph the complex number a + bi (or x + yi) we plot the ordered pair of numbers (a, b) or

(x, y) in this Cartesian plane/form.

Imaginary axis

2 2 | z  | a  b  r a + bi bi r=length
2
2
|
z 
|
a
 b
 r
a + bi
bi
r=length
a
Real axis
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y P(x , y) r  0
y
P(x , y)
r
0

x

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Complex Number

Graph the complex numbers:

a

)

z

1

3

4

i

b

)

z

2

6

8

i

c

)

(

z

1

z

2

)

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Modulus

The modulus (or absolute value) of the complex number

z x iy

is:

| z|

2 2 x  y
2
2
x
 y

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Argument

y

O

Argument y O P ( x , y )  r  •The argument of z

P(x, y)

r 
r

•The

argument

of

z,

denoted by arg(z), is the

angle between OX and OP.

Argument y O P ( x , y )  r  •The argument of z

•The principal arguments is

  • x

•The angle is positive if counterclockwise and negative if clockwise.

54

Example (a): Argument

1. What is arg(z) if z = 1 + i?

From the diagram, | y  1   tan |    | x
From the
diagram,
|
y
 1
 tan
|   
|
x
|
y
   
 1
1
 tan
 
1  
1
x
1
.
4

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Example (b): Argument

2. What is arg(z) if z = -1 + i?

From the diagram,

From the diagram,
 

tan

1

 

|

|

  • x | |    

y

 

y

tan

1

1

  • 1



1

 1

-1

 

x

 
  • 3

 

 

.

 

4

 

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Example (c): Argument

3. What is arg(z) if z = 1 – i?

From the diagram,

y 1  -1
y
1
-1

 

|

|

y

x

1

1

| |    

1

  tan

1

  • x   tan

 

 

 

.

 

4

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Example (d): Argument

4. What is arg(z) if z = –1 – i?

From the diagram,

 

y

y

-1

 
-1
 


-1

x

   

 

 

tan

1

 

|

|

y

x

|

 

 

 

 

3

tan

  • 4

1

1     

1

 

 

 

 

.

 

4

58

Example 12

Find themodulusand argument of thecomplex numbers:

a)

3

4 i

b)

6

7 i

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Square Roots of a Complex Number

How to find the square root

z x iy

?

First, let

z

  • 2 a ib

.

Then we have (

x

iy

)

2

a

ib

(

2

x

y

2

)

i

(2

xy

)

a

ib

Equating the real & imaginary parts will produce 2 new equations. Therefore x and y can be obtained by solving these 2 equations.

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Example 13

Find

i)

i)

3

4i

ii

6i



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Polar or Trigonometric Form

If θ is an angle in standard position whose terminal side coincides with this line segment, by the definitions of sine and cosine x = r cos θ

and

y = r sin θ

So, z = r cos θ + ir sin θ z = r(cos θ + i sin θ)

This is the polar form.

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y P(x , y) r  0
y
P(x , y)
r
0

x

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Example 14

Write these complex numbers in Cartesian forms

into Polar (trigonometric) form.

a.

3

4

i

b.

2

3
3

2

i

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Example 16

(a)Given z

1

 

4

1

2

i ,Find

i

the modulus of

z,|z

|

.

(ii) the argument of

z,θ

,where

π

θ

π

.

(b)Given

z

1

2

3

i

and

z

2

6

8 .

i

Express

1

z

1

3

2

z

1

z

2

in theCartesian formof x

yi.

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1.4 Sets

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Set

SET = Any collection of objects specified in such a way that we can tell whether any given object is or is not in the collection.

Each object in a set is called a member, or element, of the set.

Capital letters are often used to designate particular sets.

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Set

a A

means “ a is an element of set

A

a A means “ a

is not an element of set

A

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Set

Let set A : { x

x is an even positive integer which is

less than 13 }.

Set A = { 2,

4,

6,

8,

10,

12}

4A , 9A ,

10A.

13A

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Subset

If each element of a set A is also an element of set B,

then A

is a subset of B.

If set A and set B have exactly the same elements,

then the two sets are said to be equal.

Notation :

A B

A B

means

A

is a

subset of

B

means

A

is not a subset of

B

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Universal Set

A set that contains all the elements of the set in a specific discussion is called the

universal set. It is represented by:

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Empty Set

A set without any elements is called the empty, or null, set. It is represented by:

Note :

is a subset of every set.

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Example 17

If

A = { –3, –2,

2,

3

}

,

B = { 3, –3, –2,

2 } ,

and C = { –3, –2, –1,

0,

1,

2,

3 }.

Indicate whether the following relationships are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F):-

 

A

B

A B

B C

A C

B C

C A

C

B

A

B C

A C

B A

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Example 18

  • (a) Which of the following is False?

    • (i) {0}

(ii)

{0}

  • (b) List all the subsets of the set { 1,

2,

3, 4 }.

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Operations of Sets

Union

Intersection

Difference

Complement

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Union

The union of sets A and B , denoted by

AB,

is the set of all elements formed by combining all the

elements of A and all the elements of B into one set.

A

B

{

x

x

A or
A
or

x

B }

x may be an element of set

A

or set

B or both.

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Intersection

The intersection of sets A and B , denoted by

AB,

is the set of elements in set

A

that are also in set

B .

A

B

{

x

  • x A

and

Intersection The intersection of sets A and B , denoted by A  B , is

x

x is an element of both set

A

and set

B .

B }

If

AB

, the sets

A

and

B

are said to be

disjoint / mutually exclusive.

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Difference between 2 Sets

The difference between set A and set B,

is the set of elements in set

A

but not in set

B.

A

B

{

x

x

A

but

x

B

}

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Complement

The complement of A , denoted by

A'or A,

is the set of elements in

that are not in

A .

A

'

{

x

x

,

x

A

}

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Venn Diagram

Union :

Venn Diagram Union : AA BB A B  FHMM1014 7979 Mathematics I
AA BB A B
AA
BB
A B

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Venn Diagram

Intersection :

AA BB A B
AA
BB
A B

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Venn Diagram

Intersection :

(A and B are mutually exclusive)

AA

A A B B

BB

A A B B

AB

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Venn Diagram

Complement :

AA A'
AA
A'

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Example 19

If

A = { 2,

4,

6 } ,

B = { 1,

2,

3,

4,

5

}

,

C = { 3,

8, 9 } ,

and

= { 1,

2,

3,

4,

5,

6,

7,

8,

9}.

Find :-

(i)

(iii)

(v)

AB

B C

A'

(ii)

(iv)

AB

B C

(vi)

C'

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Example 20

Given that

{x : 10 x 30,

x},

  • X {x : difference of digits of

x

is

4},

Y {x : x is a multiple of 5},

Find:

Z {x : x

is a factor of 60}.

(i)

(X Y)'

(iii)

X ' Y'

(ii)

Y ' Z

(iv)

Y Z

  • (v) (X Z )' Y

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Example 21

Given

{ x

5

x

10,

x

 

R

}

A

{

x

1

x

8,

x

R

}

B

{

x

3

  • x 5,

x

R

}

 

C

{

x

2

  • x R

7,

x

}

 

Find, in interval notation, each of the following sets:

(

a

)

A

B

C

(

b

)

A

B

 

(

c

)

(

A

B

)

C

 

(

d

)

(

B

C

)

A

(

e

)

(

A

C

)

B

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Algebraic Laws on Sets

Commutative law

Associative law

Distributive law

De Morgan’s law

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Commutative Law

For any two sets

A

and

B,

AB

B A

AB

B A

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Associative Law

For any three sets

A,

B

and

C,

A(B C) (AB)C AB C A(B C) (AB)C AB C

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Distributive Law

For any three sets

A,

B

and

C,

A(B C) (AB)(AC) A(B C) (AB)(AC)

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De Morgan’s Law

For any two sets

A

and

B,

First law :

(AB)'

A' B'

Complement of the union is the intersection of the complements.

Second law :

(AB)'

A' B'

Complement of the intersection is the union of the complements.

90

Example 22

By using set algebra, prove that, for any sets A and B '

(i)

A(A B) AB

(

ii

)

[

'

B

(

AB

'

'

) ]

'

AB

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Example 23

By using set algebra, prove that, for any sets A and B

  • (i) B(B A)  AB

(ii)

A

B A

A

B

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The End Of Chapter 1

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