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Parallel Curriculum Model

A plan for moving every child


toward expertise

Our Advance Organizer


Define

curriculum
Review curriculum components
Define curriculum models
Overview of PCM goals and purposes
Definitions, goals, and purposes of each
parallel
Illustrations of each parallel
Decisions and next steps

The Word: Curriculum


Latin:

Running course
Scotland 1603: Carriage way, road
United States 1906: Course of study
United States, 1940: Plan for learning (study)

What is curriculum?

Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning


that requires the purposeful and proactive
organization, sequencing, and management
of the interactions among the teacher, the
students, and the content knowledge we
want students to acquire.

Some of the components of a comprehensive


curriculum unit
Content

Grouping

Assessment

Products

Introduction/Closure

Resources

Teaching

Extension Activities

Strategies

Learning Activities

and Pacing

Differentiation

Characteristics of Exemplary
Curriculum
Powerfulknowledgegoals,representativeor
generativetopics,andbigideas
Advanceorganizersthatclarifyprior
knowledge,futureactivities,andexpectations
Motivatingintroductoryexperiences
Challengingandactivelearningactivities
Authenticresourcesandproducts
Alignedassessmentstrategiesandgrowth
criteria,feedback,debriefing,transferand
extensionopportunities,interaction,and
support
Interestbasedapplicationsandextensions
Modificationsthatattendtopowerfulstudent
differences

What is a curriculum
model?
A model is a format for
curriculum design
developed to meet unique
needs, contexts, and/or
purposes. In order to
address these goals,
curriculum developers
design, reconfigure, or
rearrange one or more key
curriculum components.

Modifications

Extensions

Grouping

Resources

Products

Learning

Teaching

Intro

Assessment

Content

The Framework Underlying All


Curriculum Models

KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS

Reasons and Rationale


for a Curriculum Model
Based on Student
Differences
Why should we differentiate our

curriculum?
What kinds of student differences should
we address?
How will we develop or revise curriculum
to address these differences?
What should we expect from
differentiation?

Learning is our Business

We want to ensure and increase student learning and


achievement.
Learning begins with attention to students prior
knowledge, motivation, attention, effort, and perception.
Different learners have different levels of prior
knowledge, motivations, effort, and learning styles.
If we attend to learner differences we can make our
curriculum more efficient.
Efficiency, effectiveness, and planning increases the
quality of curriculum.

Differences
Among Learners

Students have different levels of prior knowledge and cognitive


abilities (Vygotsky/Bloom/Lu/Kulick)
Some students need, prefer, or learn best with a logical, sequence
of main ideas that explain the structure of a topic or discipline
(Bruner/Taba/Tyler)
Other students prefer to think in analogies and to see relationships
among and across ideas (Gordon/Sternberg)
Many students prefer to see how ideas are used in the world
(Dewey)
Still others need to see the personal relevance of ideas and topics
to become motivated to learn (Wigginton/Summerhill)

So, how does PCM provide


qualitatively differentiated curriculum?
Opportunities to learn
the core knowledge
(enduring facts,
concepts, principles,
and skills) within a
discipline
Opportunities to
transfer and apply
knowledge and/or
use the tools and
methods of the
scholar, researcher,
and practitioner

Opportunities to learn
about the numerous
relationships and
connections that exist
across topics, disciplines,
events, time, and cultures
Opportunities for
students to address or
develop
intrapersonal
qualities and develop
their affinities within
and across disciplines

What is the Parallel


Curriculum Model?
The Parallel Curriculum Model is a
set of four interrelated designs that
can be used singly, or in combination,
to create or revise existing curriculum
units, lessons, or tasks. Each of the
four parallels offers a unique approach
for organizing content, teaching, and
learning that is closely aligned to the
special purpose of each parallel.

The Parallel Curriculum Model


CORE
CURRICULUM

CURRICULUM CURRICULUM
OF
OF
CONNECTIONS
PRACTICE

CURRICULUM
OF
IDENTITY

KEY CURRICULUM COMPONENTS

Why Four Parallels?

Qualitatively differentiated
curriculum isnt achieved by
doing only one thing or one kind
of thing.
Students are different.
Students have different needs at
different times in their lives.
Students styles, talents,
interests, environments and
opportunities are different.
Students have different levels of
expertise.

The Parallel Curriculum:


Four Facets of
Qualitatively
Differentiated Curriculum
Core:

The essential nature of a discipline


Connections: The relationships among knowledge
Practice: The applications of facts, concepts,
principles, skills, and methods as scholars,
researchers, developers, or practitioners
Identity: Developing students interests and
expertise, strengths, values, and character

The Core Curriculum:


Definition
The Core Curriculum addresses the core
concepts, principles, and skills of a
discipline. It is designed to help students
understand essential, discipline-based content
through the use of representative topics,
inductive teaching, and analytic learning
activities.

The Curriculum of
Connections:
Definition
The Curriculum of Connections builds upon the Core
Curriculum. It is a plan that includes a set of
guidelines and procedures to help curriculum
developers connect overarching concepts,
principles, and skills within and across disciplines,
time periods, cultures, places, and/or events. This
parallel is designed to help students understand
overarching concepts and principles as they relate to
new content and content areas.

The Curriculum
of Practice:
Definition
The Curriculum of Practice is a plan that includes a set
of guidelines and procedures to help students
understand, use, generalize, and transfer essential
knowledge, understandings, and skills in a field to
authentic questions, practices, and problems. This
parallel is designed to help students function with
increasing skill and competency as a researcher,
creator, producer, problem solver, or practitioner in a
field.

The Curriculum
of Identity:
Definition
The Curriculum of Identity is a plan that includes
a set of guidelines and procedures to assist
students in reflecting upon the relationship
between the skills and ideas in a discipline and
their own lives, personal growth, and
development. This parallel is designed to help
students explore and participate in a discipline or
field as it relates to their own interests, goals, and
strengths, both now and in the future.

What does
Parallel mean?
Each

parallel has components that align with each other.


Parallels can be used singly or in combination.
Each of the parallels is of equal value and use with a
variety of students or with an individual student at a
variety of times.
The choice to use a particular parallel should be strongly
related to learners profiles, the subject area, content goals,
related units, lessons, and tasks.

Ascending Levels
of Demand
Ascending levels of intellectual demand is the
process that escalates one or more facets of the
curriculum in order to match a learners profile and
provide appropriate challenge and pacing. Prior
knowledge and opportunities, existing scheme, and
cognitive abilities are major attributes of a learners
profile. Teachers reconfigure one or more curriculum
components in order to ensure that students are
working in their zone of optimal development.

Why Provide
Ascending Levels of
Intellectual
Demand?

To honor differences among students


To address varying levels of prior knowledge,
varying opportunities, and cognitive abilities
To ensure optimal levels of academic achievement
To support continuous learning
To ensure intrinsic motivation
To provide appropriate levels of challenge

Ascending Levels of
Intellectual Demand Take
Into Consideration
Students .

Cognitive

abilities
Prior knowledge
Schema
Opportunities to learn
Learning rate
Developmental differences
Levels of abstraction

Ascending Levels of
Intellectual Demand

Vary the depth


Adjust the abstraction
Change the complexity
Make contexts and examples more or
less novel or familiar
Adjust the pace
Use more/less advanced materials and
text
Provide more/less scaffolding
Provide frequent/intermittent feedback
Provide/let students infer related
strategies
Infer concepts from applications and
problem solving

Provide more/fewer examples


Be more/less explicit/inductive
Provide simpler/more complex
problems and applications
Vary the sophistication level
Provide lengthier/briefer texts
Provide more/less text support
Require more/less independence or
collaboration
Require more/less evidence
Ask for/provide analogies
Teach to concepts before/after examples
Teach principles before/after examples
or concepts

What are the purposes for the


Parallel Curriculum Model?

Provides teachers with a comprehensive framework with which they can


design, evaluate, and revise existing curriculum
Improves the quality of the curriculum units, lessons, and tasks
Enhances the alignment among the general, gifted, ESOL, and special
education curricula
Increases the authenticity and power of the knowledge students acquire and
their related learning activities
Offers teachers the flexibility to achieve multiple purposes
Reinforces the need to think deeply about learners and content knowledge
Uses high quality curriculum as a catalyst for observing and developing
abilities in learners
Allows flexibility to address varying needs and interests of learners

Ten Unique Things About


PCM

Defines curriculum and curriculum models


Describes the 10 components of curriculum design
Unifies various purposes for differentiated curriculum
Identifies specific goals for each parallel
Describes how curriculum can be used to address the affective
domain
Describes specifics for increasing intellectual challenge
Treats all parallels as equal in value
Supports an inclusive approach to special education
Addresses collaboration between ESE, gifted, and general
education
Stresses the development of talent and expertise for every learner

The Core Curriculum


The Core Curriculum addresses the core
concepts, principles, and skills of a
discipline. It is designed to help students
understand essential, discipline-based content
through the use of representative topics,
inductive teaching, and analytic learning
activities.

Core is
not..
Cultural literacy
Basic skills
Regular education
curriculum

Categories of Knowledge
Facts:

Aspecificdetail,verifiableinformation

Concepts:

Ageneralideaorunderstanding,especiallyageneralizedideaof
athingorclassofthings;acategoryorclassification

Principles:

Fundamentaltruths,laws,doctrines,orrules,thatexplainsthe
relationshipbetweentwoormoreconcepts

Generalizations: Ageneralizationisaprincipleorconceptthatcanbeapplied
acrosstopicsordisciples
Skills:

Proficiency,ability,ortechnique,strategy,methodortool

Attitudes

Selfknowledgeofappreciations,values,andactionsrelatedtoa
topicthatareaffectiveinnature

Guiding Questions
within the Core
Curriculum

What is the essential content within this discipline?


What are the powerful concepts, principles and skills within
this discipline?
Which topics best represent the core content discipline?
Which topics are developmentally appropriate for my students?
How might I help students construct an accurate scheme of this
discipline?
Which resources, activities, and products provide opportunities
for students analytic thinking about core knowledge?
How might I assess student learning?

The Curriculum of
Connections:
Definition
The Curriculum of Connections builds upon the Core
Curriculum. It is a plan that includes a set of
guidelines and procedures to help curriculum
developers connect overarching concepts,
principles, and skills within and across disciplines,
time periods, cultures, places, and/or events. This
parallel is designed to help students understand
overarching concepts and principles as they relate to
new content and content areas.

What kind of connections


are we talking about?

Connections across time, events, topics, disciplines,


cultures, and perspectives
Connections to self, other texts, and other people
Understanding of intra and interdisciplinary
macroconcepts
Understanding of intradisciplinary
generalizations
Understanding of interdisciplinary themes

Guiding Questions
within the Curriculum
of Connections
What are the major concepts and principles
in this discipline?
Which of these major concepts and principles link to numerous topics, people,
events, time periods, cultures and other disciplines?
Which topics, events, people, or time periods best represent these intra or
interdisciplinary connections?
Which topics, events, people, or time periods are developmentally appropriate
for my students?
How might I help students construct a more comprehensive scheme of this
discipline, related topics, and other disciplines?
Which resources, activities, and products provide opportunities for students to
think metaphorically about macroconcepts, principles, and generalizations?
How might I assess student learning?

The Curriculum
of Practice:
Definition
The Curriculum of Practice is a plan that includes a set
of guidelines and procedures to help students
understand, use, generalize, and transfer essential
knowledge, understandings, and skills in a field to
authentic questions, practices, and problems. This
parallel is designed to help students function with
increasing skill and competency as a researcher,
creator, producer, problem solver, or practitioner in a
field.

What is meant by the


Curriculum of Practice?
Real world applications
Practitioner
Problem solver
Researcher
Creator
Producer

Why might we use


the Curriculum of
Practice?

Allows students to function as a practitioner, a producer, a researcher, a


problem solver, or a creator in the discipline
Allows students to assume a leadership role in conducting their own
research
Provides a rationale for the persistent student question, Why is this so
important to learn?
Provides students with the tools and methods for independent learning
Provide a means for exploring the daily lives of professionals in the
discipline
Offers students the opportunity to learn how to use and apply the skills
of the discipline in real world situations
Supports transfer and application

Guiding Questions
within the
Curriculum of
Practice
What are the common problems, practices, issues, needs, and questions
within this discipline?
Who are the practitioners, researchers, problem solvers, and contributors
within this discipline?
What are the powerful cognitive, research, reference, learning,
communication, and methodological skills within this discipline?
What kinds of products, services, research, or investigations are typically
conducted in this discipline?
Which problems, practices, issues, needs, and questions are
developmentally appropriate for students?
Which resources, activities, and products provide opportunities for
students to act like a practicing professional within this field?
How might I assess student learning?

The Curriculum
of Identity:
Definition
The Curriculum of Identity is a plan that includes
a set of guidelines and procedures to assist
students in reflecting upon the relationship
between the skills and ideas in a discipline and
their own lives, personal growth, and
development. This parallel is designed to help
students explore and participate in a discipline or
field as it relates to their own interests, goals, and
strengths, both now and in the future.

The Identity Parallel


Emphasizes

the role of the individual within


a content area
Provides opportunities for self exploration
Supports an individuals search for affinity,
affiliation, and knowledge of self
Offers a sequential plan to address
increasing levels of interest and
commitment to a field

Guiding Questions
within the Curriculum of
What are the various interests, abilities, and learning preferencesIdentity
of my students?
Which topics, skills, opportunities, and careers are related to my students profiles?
How might I link my students profiles with the content I am required to teach?
How might I introduce my students to professionals, organizations, and role models
in their areas of interest and strength?
How might I help my students discover their own strengths and affinities?
How might I identify, measure, and help my students reflect upon their growth and
progress toward self-actualization?
What is our long-term plan for supporting my students self-actualization?
Which opportunities and activities are appropriate for my students at this stage of
their development ?
Which resources, activities, and products provide opportunities for students selfreflection and personal development?

Where do standards fit in


with this picture?
National and state committees of
content experts
Identified core concepts,
principles, generalizations,
skills, attitudes, and
applications in various content
areas.
Spiraled the content across grade
levels
SSS are aligned with the Big
Ideas

What is a standard?

A content standard is a declarative


statement that identifies the essential
knowledge in a given subject area that
students should attain as a result of
instruction. Performance standards, or
benchmarks, specify ascending levels of
understanding across various grade levels.

Products
Definition:

Performancesorworksamplescreatedby
studentsthatprovideevidenceofstudent
learning

Purpose:

Toassessstudentgrowth,toprovidefor
studentreflection,tomonitorandadjust
instruction,toevaluatestudents

Characteristics:Alignedwiththecontentgoals,teaching

methodsandstudentslearningneeds;
varied;authentic;motivating;efficient

Assessments
Definition:
to

Variedtools,techniques,andcriteria
teachersuse
measurestudentsacquisitionofknowledge

Purpose:

Toascertaintheextenttowhichstudentshaveattainedthe
knowledgecontainedwithinthelearninggoal(s),tomake
decisionsaboutfutureareasofemphasis

ExemplaryCharacteristics:
Alignedwiththelearninggoal,reliable,
valid,varied,efficient,equitable,motivating,havealow
baselineandahighceiling

Core: Assessments
Assess students prior knowledge with regard to the
representative topic and core concepts, principles, and skills.
Useful assessment formats include: concept maps, journal
entries, reflections, graphic organizers, charts, diagrams,
tables, and collages
Evaluate the extent to which students have mastered the
core concepts, principles, and skills of the discipline(s). Ask
for definitions, synonyms, examples, classification, and
explanations.
Use rubrics to measure student learning over time. Measure
the quality/depth of conceptual understanding and guiding
principles.

The Relationship Between


Assessment and Curriculum
Prior KNOWLEDGE

PREASSESSMENT
Reveals critical differences among students. Guides teachers
decisions and planning
TEACHING AND LEARNING
ACTIVITIES AND FEEDBACK

ON-GOING & POST ASSESSMENT

How might we use a


particular parallel?

Design a unit
Revise a unit
Design a lesson
Revise a lesson
Design a task
Revise a task
Use in the regular classroom
Use it in the gifted or ESE program
Use it will all students
Use it with some students
Use different parallels with different curriculum components
Use one parallel while another teacher uses another parallel
Use one parallel after another teacher has used a different parallel
Move back and forth between parallels within the same unit
Use a parallel as an extension of a core unit
Use parallel activities as optional activities for some students

Who might design PCM


curriculum?
Classroom

teachers
Special education teachers
Vertical teams
Inclusion teams
Grade level teams
Curriculum developers
Subject area departments

With whom might I


use the PCM?
Individual

students
Small groups of students
Entire classes
Students with specific interests and affinities
Students who are currently unmotivated by
traditional curriculum
Students with advanced levels of prior knowledge
Students with latent strengths and abilities
Students with advanced cognitive abilities

What contextual factors should we consider

when making decisions about the use of PCM?

What is the present status and quality of our curriculum?


Which content areas are in greatest need of improvement?
What are the varying strengths and needs of our students?
How do we want students to be different as a result of our
curriculum revision efforts?
What kind of content learning must we do first?
What kind of professional learning do we need to conduct?
What information do we have or can we gather about our students in
order to make decisions about the appropriate use of PCM?
How might we sequence and pace a PCM initiative?

James Lee in
Phi Delta Kappan

When students engage

in
challenging and authentic
learning activities in which
purposeful intellectual work is
connected to the real world of
problem solving and creative
projects and in which a critically
supportive audience responds to
work in progress, students
motivation and commitment to
meet high expectations increase
dramatically.

Caution:
Cape does
not enable
user to fly.

THE END