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3.

Systems and Transfer function


Discrete-time system revision
Discrete-time system
A/D and D/A converters
Sampling frequency and sampling theorem
Nyquist frequency
Aliasings
Z-transform & inverse Z-transform
The output of a D/A converter

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


A Zero-order hold in a system

x(t)

x(kT)
Sampler

Zero-order h(t)
Hold

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


How does a signal change its form in a discrete-time
system?
The input signal x(t) is sampled at discrete instants
and the sampled signal is passed through the zeroorder-hold (ZOH). The ZOH circuit smoothes the
sampled signal to produce the signal h(t), which is
a constant from the last sampled value until the
next sample is available. That is
h(kT t ) x(kT ), for 0 t T

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


Transfer function of Zero-order-hold
The figure below shows a combination of a
sampler and a zero-order hold.
x(t)

x(kT)
Sampler

Zero-order h(t)
Hold

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


Assume that the signal x(t) is zero for t<0,
then the output h(t)is related to x(t) as
follows:
h(t)

h(t ) x(0)[1(t ) 1(t T )] x(T )[1(t T ) 1(t 2T )]

x(kT)[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)]


k 0

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


As

kTs
e
L[ f (t kT )] F ( s )e kTs , L[1(t kT )]
s
L[ (t )] 1, L (t kT ) e kTs

The Laplace transform of the above equation


becomes

L[h(t )] L[ x(kT)[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)]]


k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts
x(kT)L[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)] x(kT)[

]
s
s
k 0
k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts
1 e Ts kTs 1 e Ts
x(kT)
x(kT)
e

s
s
s
k 0
k 0

kTs
x(kT)e

k 0

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

As X ( s) L

Therefore

kTs
x
(
kT
)

(
t

kT
)

x
(
kT
)
e


k 0
k 0

1 e Ts
H ( s ) L[h(t )]
s

x(kT)e
k 0

kTs

1 e Ts

X (s)
s

Finally, we obtain the transfer function of a ZOH as


H ( s ) 1 e Ts
G h ( s ) G0 ( s )

X ( s)
s

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


There are also first-order-hold and high-order-hold
although they are not used in control system.

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


A zero-order-hold creates one sampling interval
delay in input signal.

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


First-order-hold

1 e
Gh1 ( s )
s

Ts

Ts 1

3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)


First-order-hold and high-order-hold does not bring
us much advantages except in some special cases.
Therefore, in a control system, usually a ZOH is
employed. The device to implement a ZOH is a
D/A converter.
If not told, always suppose there is a ZOH in a
digital control system.

3.2 Plants with ZOH


Given a discrete-time system, the transfer function of
a combination of a ZOH and the plant can be
written as GHP(z) in Z-domain. HP, here, means the
ZOH and the Plant.
GHP(z)

ZOH

GP(s)

3.2 Plants with ZOH


The continuous time transfer function
GHP(s)=G0(s)GP(s)
The discrete time transfer function

G P ( s)
GP (s)
sT G P ( s )
G HP ( z ) Z G HP ( s ) Z (1 e )
Z
Z e

s
s
s

G P ( s)
GP (s)
1 G P ( s )
1
Z
z Z
(1 z ) Z

s
s
s

sT

GP (s)
sT
G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
,
z

3.2 Plants with ZOH


1
G P (s)
s 1

Example 1: Given a ZOH and a plant


Determine their Z-domain transfer function.

1
G P ( s)
1

(
1

z
)
Z

s ( s 1)

G HP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

1 1
1
1
1
(1 z ) Z
(1 z ) Z Z

s s 1
s 1
s
1
1

1
(1 z )

1
T 1
1 e z
1 z
T 1
1
T
1
1

e
z

z
(
1

e
)
z
(1 z 1 )

1
T 1
(1 z )(1 e z )
1 e T z 1
1

3.2 Plants with ZOH


1

Example 2: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)


s ( s 1)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

1
GP ( s )
1
GHP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
(1 z ) Z 2

s ( s 1)
1

1
1 1
1
1
1
1
(1 z ) Z 2
(1 z ) Z 2 Z Z

s
s
s

1
s
s
s

Tz
1
1
1

(1 z )

1 2
1
T 1
1 e z
(1 z ) 1 z
(T 1 e T ) z 1 (1 e T Te T ) z 2

(1 z 1 )(1 e T z 1 )

3.2 Plants with ZOH


ab

Exercise 1: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)


( s a)( s b)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

Answer:
1 z 1 a b
b
a

GHP ( z )

1
aT 1
aT 1
a b 1 z
1 e z
1 e z

Assignment 1
You are required to implement a digital PID
controller which will enable a control object with
K n2
a transfer function of
G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

where K=0.2, n=10 rad/s, and =0.3.


to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp
signal.
1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Assignment 1
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)
and explain your choice.
3)* Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)
from G(s).
4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time
system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the
performance criterion below
using steepest descent
M
k .ek
minimization process S
k 0
5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the
responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss
the resulting responses.

3.3 Represent a system in difference


equation
1
GP (s)
s 1

(1 e T ) z 1
G HP ( z )
1 e T z 1

For
we have
Let A=1-e-T and B=e-T, then the transfer function can
be rewritten as
(1 e T ) z 1
Az 1
Y ( z)
GHP ( z )

T 1
1
1 e z
1 Bz
X ( z)
Y ( z )(1 Bz 1 ) AX ( z ) Y ( z ) BY ( z ) z 1 AX ( z ) z 1
y (k ) By (k 1) Ax(k 1)
y (k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1)

3.3 Represent a system in difference


equation
Simulate the above system
1) Parameters and input: A=1-e-T, B=e-T , x(k)=1
2) initial condition: x(k-1)=0, y(k)=y(k-1)=0, k=0
3) Simulation
While k<100 do
y(k)=Ax(k-1)+By(k-1); Calculate output
x(k-1)=x(k); y(k-1)=y(k); x(k)=1; k=k+1; Update data
print k, x(k), y(k); Display step, input & output
End

3.3 Represent a system in difference


equation
Let T=1, we have A=0.6321 and B=0.3679
For a unit step input, the response is
y(k)=0.6321x(k-1)+0.3679y(k-1)
k= 0
1
2
3
4
5
x(k) 1
1
1
1
1
1
y(k) 0
0.6321
1
1
1
1

3.3 Represent a system in difference


equation
Step Response

1
0.9
0.8

Amplitude

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

3
Time (sec.)

Assignment 1
1)* Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.
K n2
G ( s) 2
s 2 n s n2
Hints: Method 1
K n2
Y ( s)
G ( s) 2

2
s 2 n s n X ( s )
K n2
Y (s) G(s) X (s) 2
X (s)
2
s 2 n s n

K n2
y(t) L [G ( s ) X ( s )] L 2
X ( s)
2
s 2 n s n

Assignment 1
Hints: Method 2
K n2
Y ( s)
Y ( z)
G(s) 2

,
G
(
z
)

Z
[
G
(
s
)]

s 2 n s n2 X ( s )
X ( z)

b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2
Y ( z)
K n2
Z 2

2
1
2
X ( z)
s

a
z

a
z
n
n
1
2

Y ( z )(1 a1 z 1 a2 z 2 ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 )
Y ( z ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 ) Y ( z )(a1 z 1 a2 z 2 )

y(kT) L1[Y ( z )] L1 X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 ) Y ( z )(a1 z 1 a2 z 2 )


k 0,1,2

3.4 System stability


We can rewrite the difference equation as
y ( k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1) A( x(k 1)

B
y (k 1))
A

A( x(k 1) y ( k 1)), B A

If A=1 and =0.9, for an impulse input we have


y (k ) x(k 1) 0.9 y (k 1))

k 0 1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1
0.9 0.81 0.729
It decreases exponentially, a stable system.

3.4 System stability


If K=1 and =1.2, we have

y (k ) x(k 1) 1.2 y (k 1))


k
0
1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1 1.2 1.44 1.728 2.074
It increases exponentially, an unstable system.

3.4 System stability


If K=1 and = -0.8, we have
y (k ) x(k 1) 0.8 y (k 1))
k
0
1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1
-0.8 0.64 -0.512

It decays exponentially, and alternates in sign,


a gradual stable system.

3.4 System stability


It is clear that the value of determines the system
stability. Why is so important?
First, let A=1, we have
1
1
y (k ) x(k 1) y (k 1) Y ( z ) X ( z ) z Y ( z ) z

Y ( z)
z 1
1
G( z)

1
X ( z ) 1 z
z

From the transfer function, we can see that z= is a


pole of the system. The pole of the system will
determine the nature of the response.

3.4 System stability


For continuous system, we have stable,
critical stable and unstable areas in s
domain.
Critical stable area

Stable area

Unstable area

3.4 System stability


What is the stable area, critical stable area and
unstable area for a discrete system in Z
domain ?
Stable area:
unit circle
Critical stable: on the unit circle
Unstable area: outside of the unit circle

3.4 System stability


GP (s)
sT
G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
,
z

As
For the critical stable area in s domain s=j,
z e sT e j cos j sin
(cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 1

As is from 0 to , then the angle will be


greater than 2. That is the critical area
forms a unit circle in Z domain.

3.4 System stability


If we choose a point from the stable area at S domain, eg
s=- a + j, we have

z e sT e a j e a (cos j sin )

e a (cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 e a

Let eg s=- + j

z e sT e j e (cos j sin )

2
2

e
(cos

(sin

e
around
0
The stable area in Z domain is within a unit
circle

the origin.

3.4 System stability


Exercise 2: Prove that the unstable area in Z
domain is the area outside the unit circle.
Hint: Follow the above procedures.

3.4 System stability


Z domain responses

3.5 Closed-loop transfer function


Computer controlled system
GHP(z)
R(z)

M(z)

E(z)
Gc(z)

Computer system

C(z)
ZOH

GP(s)

Plant

3.5 Closed-loop transfer function


Lets find out the closed-loop transfer
function
C ( z ) M ( z )G HP ( z ) E ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )
E ( z ) R( z ) C ( z )
C ( z ) ( R ( z ) C ( z ))GC ( z )G HP ( z )
C ( z ) C ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z ) R( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )
GC ( z )G HP ( z )
C ( z)
T ( z)

R ( z ) 1 GC ( z )G HP ( z )

3.5 Closed-loop transfer function


C(z): output;
E(z): error
R(z): input; M(z): controller output
GC(z): controller
GP(z)/G(z): plant transfer function
GHP(z): transfer function of plant + ZOH
T(z): closed-loop transfer function
GC(z)GHP(z): open-loop transfer function
1+ GC(z)GHP(z)=0: characteristic equation

3.6 System block diagram


C(z)

+
R(s)

G(s)

C ( z)
G( z)

R( z ) 1 G ( z ) H ( z )

H(s)
C(s)

+
R(s)

G(s)
H(s)

C(z)

C ( z)
G( z)

R( z ) 1 GH ( z )

3.6 System block diagram


The difference between G(z)H(z) and GH(z)
G(z)H(z)=Z[G(s)]Z[H(s)]
GH(z)=Z[G(s)H(s)]
Usually, G(z)H(z) GH(z)
G(z)H(z) means they are connected through a
sampler. Whereas GH(z) they are connected
directly.

3.6 System block diagram


Example: Find the closed-loop transfer
function for the system below.
+
R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

H(s)

Solution: The open-loop is G1(z)G2H(z).


The forward path is G1(z)G2(z).

C(z)

3.6 System block diagram


+
R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

C(z)

H(s)

E ( z ) R( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ); R( z ) E ( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 H ( z )


E ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))
C ( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))
C ( z ) R( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z )
T ( z)

R( z ) 1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z )

3.6 System block diagram


*Exercise 3: Find the output for the closedloop system below.
+
R(s)

G(s)
H(s)

C(s)

C(z)

GR( z )
C ( z)
1 GH ( z )

3.6 System block diagram


*Exercise 4: Find the output for the closedloop system below.
+
R(s)

G1(s)
H(s)

RG1 ( z )G2 ( z )
C ( z)
1 G1G2 H ( z )

G2(s)

C(z)

Reading
Study book
Module 3: Systems and transfer functions
(Please try the problems on page 3.46-47)
Textbook
Chapter 3 : Z-plane analysis of discretetime control system (pages 74-83 & 104114).

Tutorial
ab

Exercise 1: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)


( s a)( s b)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

ab
GP ( s )
1

(
1

z
)
Z

s
s
(
s

a
)(
s

b
)

GHP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

k
k
k1
1 b (a b) a (b a )
2 3 (1 z 1 ) Z

sa
sb
s s a s b
s

(1 z 1 ) Z

1
b
a
1
1
(1 z ) Z
Z
Z


s
a

b
s

a
b

a
s



1
b
1
a
1

(1 z 1 )

1
a b 1 e aT z 1 b a 1 e bT z 1
1 z
(1 z 1 ) a b
b
a

a b 1 z 1 1 e aT z 1 1 e aT z 1
1

Tutorial
You are required to implement a digital PID
controller which will enable a control object with
K n2
a transfer function of
G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

where K=0.2, n=10 rad/s, and =0.3.


to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp
signal.
1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Tutorial
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)
and explain your choice.
3) Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)
from G(s).
4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time
system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the
M
performance criterion below
using steepest descent
k ek
minimization process S
.
k 0
5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the
responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss
the resulting responses.

Tutorial
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop
for G(s) and explain your choice.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Sampling theorem
Input signal
Bandwidth of a system
Bold plots
Applying sampling theorem
Sampling frequency