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Discrete-time system revision

Discrete-time system

A/D and D/A converters

Sampling frequency and sampling theorem

Nyquist frequency

Aliasings

Z-transform & inverse Z-transform

The output of a D/A converter

A Zero-order hold in a system

x(t)

x(kT)

Sampler

Zero-order h(t)

Hold

How does a signal change its form in a discrete-time

system?

The input signal x(t) is sampled at discrete instants

and the sampled signal is passed through the zeroorder-hold (ZOH). The ZOH circuit smoothes the

sampled signal to produce the signal h(t), which is

a constant from the last sampled value until the

next sample is available. That is

h(kT t ) x(kT ), for 0 t T

Transfer function of Zero-order-hold

The figure below shows a combination of a

sampler and a zero-order hold.

x(t)

x(kT)

Sampler

Zero-order h(t)

Hold

Assume that the signal x(t) is zero for t<0,

then the output h(t)is related to x(t) as

follows:

h(t)

k 0

As

kTs

e

L[ f (t kT )] F ( s )e kTs , L[1(t kT )]

s

L[ (t )] 1, L (t kT ) e kTs

becomes

k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts

x(kT)L[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)] x(kT)[

]

s

s

k 0

k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts

1 e Ts kTs 1 e Ts

x(kT)

x(kT)

e

s

s

s

k 0

k 0

kTs

x(kT)e

k 0

As X ( s) L

Therefore

kTs

x

(

kT

)

(

t

kT

)

x

(

kT

)

e

k 0

k 0

1 e Ts

H ( s ) L[h(t )]

s

x(kT)e

k 0

kTs

1 e Ts

X (s)

s

H ( s ) 1 e Ts

G h ( s ) G0 ( s )

X ( s)

s

There are also first-order-hold and high-order-hold

although they are not used in control system.

A zero-order-hold creates one sampling interval

delay in input signal.

First-order-hold

1 e

Gh1 ( s )

s

Ts

Ts 1

First-order-hold and high-order-hold does not bring

us much advantages except in some special cases.

Therefore, in a control system, usually a ZOH is

employed. The device to implement a ZOH is a

D/A converter.

If not told, always suppose there is a ZOH in a

digital control system.

Given a discrete-time system, the transfer function of

a combination of a ZOH and the plant can be

written as GHP(z) in Z-domain. HP, here, means the

ZOH and the Plant.

GHP(z)

ZOH

GP(s)

The continuous time transfer function

GHP(s)=G0(s)GP(s)

The discrete time transfer function

G P ( s)

GP (s)

sT G P ( s )

G HP ( z ) Z G HP ( s ) Z (1 e )

Z

Z e

s

s

s

G P ( s)

GP (s)

1 G P ( s )

1

Z

z Z

(1 z ) Z

s

s

s

sT

GP (s)

sT

G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z

,

z

1

G P (s)

s 1

Determine their Z-domain transfer function.

1

G P ( s)

1

(

1

z

)

Z

s ( s 1)

G HP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

1 1

1

1

1

(1 z ) Z

(1 z ) Z Z

s s 1

s 1

s

1

1

1

(1 z )

1

T 1

1 e z

1 z

T 1

1

T

1

1

e

z

z

(

1

e

)

z

(1 z 1 )

1

T 1

(1 z )(1 e z )

1 e T z 1

1

1

s ( s 1)

Determine their z-domain transfer function.

1

GP ( s )

1

GHP ( z ) (1 z ) Z

(1 z ) Z 2

s ( s 1)

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

(1 z ) Z 2

(1 z ) Z 2 Z Z

s

s

s

1

s

s

s

Tz

1

1

1

(1 z )

1 2

1

T 1

1 e z

(1 z ) 1 z

(T 1 e T ) z 1 (1 e T Te T ) z 2

(1 z 1 )(1 e T z 1 )

ab

( s a)( s b)

Determine their z-domain transfer function.

Answer:

1 z 1 a b

b

a

GHP ( z )

1

aT 1

aT 1

a b 1 z

1 e z

1 e z

Assignment 1

You are required to implement a digital PID

controller which will enable a control object with

K n2

a transfer function of

G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp

signal.

1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using

Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Assignment 1

2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)

and explain your choice.

3)* Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)

from G(s).

4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time

system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the

performance criterion below

using steepest descent

M

k .ek

minimization process S

k 0

5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the

responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss

the resulting responses.

equation

1

GP (s)

s 1

(1 e T ) z 1

G HP ( z )

1 e T z 1

For

we have

Let A=1-e-T and B=e-T, then the transfer function can

be rewritten as

(1 e T ) z 1

Az 1

Y ( z)

GHP ( z )

T 1

1

1 e z

1 Bz

X ( z)

Y ( z )(1 Bz 1 ) AX ( z ) Y ( z ) BY ( z ) z 1 AX ( z ) z 1

y (k ) By (k 1) Ax(k 1)

y (k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1)

equation

Simulate the above system

1) Parameters and input: A=1-e-T, B=e-T , x(k)=1

2) initial condition: x(k-1)=0, y(k)=y(k-1)=0, k=0

3) Simulation

While k<100 do

y(k)=Ax(k-1)+By(k-1); Calculate output

x(k-1)=x(k); y(k-1)=y(k); x(k)=1; k=k+1; Update data

print k, x(k), y(k); Display step, input & output

End

equation

Let T=1, we have A=0.6321 and B=0.3679

For a unit step input, the response is

y(k)=0.6321x(k-1)+0.3679y(k-1)

k= 0

1

2

3

4

5

x(k) 1

1

1

1

1

1

y(k) 0

0.6321

1

1

1

1

equation

Step Response

1

0.9

0.8

Amplitude

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

3

Time (sec.)

Assignment 1

1)* Simulate this control object and find the responses using

Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

K n2

G ( s) 2

s 2 n s n2

Hints: Method 1

K n2

Y ( s)

G ( s) 2

2

s 2 n s n X ( s )

K n2

Y (s) G(s) X (s) 2

X (s)

2

s 2 n s n

K n2

y(t) L [G ( s ) X ( s )] L 2

X ( s)

2

s 2 n s n

Assignment 1

Hints: Method 2

K n2

Y ( s)

Y ( z)

G(s) 2

,

G

(

z

)

Z

[

G

(

s

)]

s 2 n s n2 X ( s )

X ( z)

b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2

Y ( z)

K n2

Z 2

2

1

2

X ( z)

s

a

z

a

z

n

n

1

2

Y ( z )(1 a1 z 1 a2 z 2 ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 )

Y ( z ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 ) Y ( z )(a1 z 1 a2 z 2 )

k 0,1,2

We can rewrite the difference equation as

y ( k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1) A( x(k 1)

B

y (k 1))

A

A( x(k 1) y ( k 1)), B A

y (k ) x(k 1) 0.9 y (k 1))

k 0 1

2

3

4

...

x(k) 1

0

0

0

0

...

y(k) 0

1

0.9 0.81 0.729

It decreases exponentially, a stable system.

If K=1 and =1.2, we have

k

0

1

2

3

4

...

x(k) 1

0

0

0

0

...

y(k) 0

1 1.2 1.44 1.728 2.074

It increases exponentially, an unstable system.

If K=1 and = -0.8, we have

y (k ) x(k 1) 0.8 y (k 1))

k

0

1

2

3

4

...

x(k) 1

0

0

0

0

...

y(k) 0

1

-0.8 0.64 -0.512

a gradual stable system.

It is clear that the value of determines the system

stability. Why is so important?

First, let A=1, we have

1

1

y (k ) x(k 1) y (k 1) Y ( z ) X ( z ) z Y ( z ) z

Y ( z)

z 1

1

G( z)

1

X ( z ) 1 z

z

pole of the system. The pole of the system will

determine the nature of the response.

For continuous system, we have stable,

critical stable and unstable areas in s

domain.

Critical stable area

Stable area

Unstable area

What is the stable area, critical stable area and

unstable area for a discrete system in Z

domain ?

Stable area:

unit circle

Critical stable: on the unit circle

Unstable area: outside of the unit circle

GP (s)

sT

G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z

,

z

As

For the critical stable area in s domain s=j,

z e sT e j cos j sin

(cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 1

greater than 2. That is the critical area

forms a unit circle in Z domain.

If we choose a point from the stable area at S domain, eg

s=- a + j, we have

z e sT e a j e a (cos j sin )

e a (cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 e a

Let eg s=- + j

z e sT e j e (cos j sin )

2

2

e

(cos

(sin

e

around

0

The stable area in Z domain is within a unit

circle

the origin.

Exercise 2: Prove that the unstable area in Z

domain is the area outside the unit circle.

Hint: Follow the above procedures.

Z domain responses

Computer controlled system

GHP(z)

R(z)

M(z)

E(z)

Gc(z)

Computer system

C(z)

ZOH

GP(s)

Plant

Lets find out the closed-loop transfer

function

C ( z ) M ( z )G HP ( z ) E ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )

E ( z ) R( z ) C ( z )

C ( z ) ( R ( z ) C ( z ))GC ( z )G HP ( z )

C ( z ) C ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z ) R( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )

GC ( z )G HP ( z )

C ( z)

T ( z)

R ( z ) 1 GC ( z )G HP ( z )

C(z): output;

E(z): error

R(z): input; M(z): controller output

GC(z): controller

GP(z)/G(z): plant transfer function

GHP(z): transfer function of plant + ZOH

T(z): closed-loop transfer function

GC(z)GHP(z): open-loop transfer function

1+ GC(z)GHP(z)=0: characteristic equation

C(z)

+

R(s)

G(s)

C ( z)

G( z)

R( z ) 1 G ( z ) H ( z )

H(s)

C(s)

+

R(s)

G(s)

H(s)

C(z)

C ( z)

G( z)

R( z ) 1 GH ( z )

The difference between G(z)H(z) and GH(z)

G(z)H(z)=Z[G(s)]Z[H(s)]

GH(z)=Z[G(s)H(s)]

Usually, G(z)H(z) GH(z)

G(z)H(z) means they are connected through a

sampler. Whereas GH(z) they are connected

directly.

Example: Find the closed-loop transfer

function for the system below.

+

R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

H(s)

The forward path is G1(z)G2(z).

C(z)

+

R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

C(z)

H(s)

E ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))

C ( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))

C ( z ) R( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z )

T ( z)

R( z ) 1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z )

*Exercise 3: Find the output for the closedloop system below.

+

R(s)

G(s)

H(s)

C(s)

C(z)

GR( z )

C ( z)

1 GH ( z )

*Exercise 4: Find the output for the closedloop system below.

+

R(s)

G1(s)

H(s)

RG1 ( z )G2 ( z )

C ( z)

1 G1G2 H ( z )

G2(s)

C(z)

Reading

Study book

Module 3: Systems and transfer functions

(Please try the problems on page 3.46-47)

Textbook

Chapter 3 : Z-plane analysis of discretetime control system (pages 74-83 & 104114).

Tutorial

ab

( s a)( s b)

Determine their z-domain transfer function.

ab

GP ( s )

1

(

1

z

)

Z

s

s

(

s

a

)(

s

b

)

GHP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

k

k

k1

1 b (a b) a (b a )

2 3 (1 z 1 ) Z

sa

sb

s s a s b

s

(1 z 1 ) Z

1

b

a

1

1

(1 z ) Z

Z

Z

s

a

b

s

a

b

a

s

1

b

1

a

1

(1 z 1 )

1

a b 1 e aT z 1 b a 1 e bT z 1

1 z

(1 z 1 ) a b

b

a

a b 1 z 1 1 e aT z 1 1 e aT z 1

1

Tutorial

You are required to implement a digital PID

controller which will enable a control object with

K n2

a transfer function of

G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp

signal.

1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using

Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Tutorial

2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)

and explain your choice.

3) Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)

from G(s).

4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time

system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the

M

performance criterion below

using steepest descent

k ek

minimization process S

.

k 0

5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the

responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss

the resulting responses.

Tutorial

2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop

for G(s) and explain your choice.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Sampling theorem

Input signal

Bandwidth of a system

Bold plots

Applying sampling theorem

Sampling frequency

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