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# 3.

## Systems and Transfer function

Discrete-time system revision
Discrete-time system
A/D and D/A converters
Sampling frequency and sampling theorem
Nyquist frequency
Aliasings
Z-transform & inverse Z-transform
The output of a D/A converter

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

A Zero-order hold in a system

x(t)

x(kT)
Sampler

Zero-order h(t)
Hold

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

How does a signal change its form in a discrete-time
system?
The input signal x(t) is sampled at discrete instants
and the sampled signal is passed through the zeroorder-hold (ZOH). The ZOH circuit smoothes the
sampled signal to produce the signal h(t), which is
a constant from the last sampled value until the
next sample is available. That is
h(kT t ) x(kT ), for 0 t T

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

Transfer function of Zero-order-hold
The figure below shows a combination of a
sampler and a zero-order hold.
x(t)

x(kT)
Sampler

Zero-order h(t)
Hold

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

Assume that the signal x(t) is zero for t<0,
then the output h(t)is related to x(t) as
follows:
h(t)

k 0

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

As

kTs
e
L[ f (t kT )] F ( s )e kTs , L[1(t kT )]
s
L[ (t )] 1, L (t kT ) e kTs

becomes

## L[h(t )] L[ x(kT)[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)]]

k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts
x(kT)L[1(t - kT) - 1(t - (k 1)T)] x(kT)[

]
s
s
k 0
k 0

e kTs e ( k 1)Ts
1 e Ts kTs 1 e Ts
x(kT)
x(kT)
e

s
s
s
k 0
k 0

kTs
x(kT)e

k 0

As X ( s) L

Therefore

kTs
x
(
kT
)

(
t

kT
)

x
(
kT
)
e

k 0
k 0

1 e Ts
H ( s ) L[h(t )]
s

x(kT)e
k 0

kTs

1 e Ts

X (s)
s

## Finally, we obtain the transfer function of a ZOH as

H ( s ) 1 e Ts
G h ( s ) G0 ( s )

X ( s)
s

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

There are also first-order-hold and high-order-hold
although they are not used in control system.

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

A zero-order-hold creates one sampling interval
delay in input signal.

First-order-hold

1 e
Gh1 ( s )
s

Ts

Ts 1

## 3.1 Zero-order-hold (ZOH)

First-order-hold and high-order-hold does not bring
us much advantages except in some special cases.
Therefore, in a control system, usually a ZOH is
employed. The device to implement a ZOH is a
D/A converter.
If not told, always suppose there is a ZOH in a
digital control system.

## 3.2 Plants with ZOH

Given a discrete-time system, the transfer function of
a combination of a ZOH and the plant can be
written as GHP(z) in Z-domain. HP, here, means the
ZOH and the Plant.
GHP(z)

ZOH

GP(s)

## 3.2 Plants with ZOH

The continuous time transfer function
GHP(s)=G0(s)GP(s)
The discrete time transfer function

G P ( s)
GP (s)
sT G P ( s )
G HP ( z ) Z G HP ( s ) Z (1 e )
Z
Z e

s
s
s

G P ( s)
GP (s)
1 G P ( s )
1
Z
z Z
(1 z ) Z

s
s
s

sT

GP (s)
sT
G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
,
z

1
G P (s)
s 1

## Example 1: Given a ZOH and a plant

Determine their Z-domain transfer function.

1
G P ( s)
1

(
1

z
)
Z

s ( s 1)

G HP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

1 1
1
1
1
(1 z ) Z
(1 z ) Z Z

s s 1
s 1
s
1
1

1
(1 z )

1
T 1
1 e z
1 z
T 1
1
T
1
1

e
z

z
(
1

e
)
z
(1 z 1 )

1
T 1
(1 z )(1 e z )
1 e T z 1
1

1

## Example 2: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)

s ( s 1)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

1
GP ( s )
1
GHP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
(1 z ) Z 2

s ( s 1)
1

1
1 1
1
1
1
1
(1 z ) Z 2
(1 z ) Z 2 Z Z

s
s
s

1
s
s
s

Tz
1
1
1

(1 z )

1 2
1
T 1
1 e z
(1 z ) 1 z
(T 1 e T ) z 1 (1 e T Te T ) z 2

(1 z 1 )(1 e T z 1 )

ab

## Exercise 1: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)

( s a)( s b)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

1 z 1 a b
b
a

GHP ( z )

1
aT 1
aT 1
a b 1 z
1 e z
1 e z

Assignment 1
You are required to implement a digital PID
controller which will enable a control object with
K n2
a transfer function of
G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

## where K=0.2, n=10 rad/s, and =0.3.

to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp
signal.
1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Assignment 1
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)
and explain your choice.
3)* Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)
from G(s).
4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time
system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the
performance criterion below
using steepest descent
M
k .ek
minimization process S
k 0
5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the
responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss
the resulting responses.

## 3.3 Represent a system in difference

equation
1
GP (s)
s 1

(1 e T ) z 1
G HP ( z )
1 e T z 1

For
we have
Let A=1-e-T and B=e-T, then the transfer function can
be rewritten as
(1 e T ) z 1
Az 1
Y ( z)
GHP ( z )

T 1
1
1 e z
1 Bz
X ( z)
Y ( z )(1 Bz 1 ) AX ( z ) Y ( z ) BY ( z ) z 1 AX ( z ) z 1
y (k ) By (k 1) Ax(k 1)
y (k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1)

## 3.3 Represent a system in difference

equation
Simulate the above system
1) Parameters and input: A=1-e-T, B=e-T , x(k)=1
2) initial condition: x(k-1)=0, y(k)=y(k-1)=0, k=0
3) Simulation
While k<100 do
y(k)=Ax(k-1)+By(k-1); Calculate output
x(k-1)=x(k); y(k-1)=y(k); x(k)=1; k=k+1; Update data
print k, x(k), y(k); Display step, input & output
End

## 3.3 Represent a system in difference

equation
Let T=1, we have A=0.6321 and B=0.3679
For a unit step input, the response is
y(k)=0.6321x(k-1)+0.3679y(k-1)
k= 0
1
2
3
4
5
x(k) 1
1
1
1
1
1
y(k) 0
0.6321
1
1
1
1

## 3.3 Represent a system in difference

equation
Step Response

1
0.9
0.8

Amplitude

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

3
Time (sec.)

Assignment 1
1)* Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.
K n2
G ( s) 2
s 2 n s n2
Hints: Method 1
K n2
Y ( s)
G ( s) 2

2
s 2 n s n X ( s )
K n2
Y (s) G(s) X (s) 2
X (s)
2
s 2 n s n

K n2
y(t) L [G ( s ) X ( s )] L 2
X ( s)
2
s 2 n s n

Assignment 1
Hints: Method 2
K n2
Y ( s)
Y ( z)
G(s) 2

,
G
(
z
)

Z
[
G
(
s
)]

s 2 n s n2 X ( s )
X ( z)

b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2
Y ( z)
K n2
Z 2

2
1
2
X ( z)
s

a
z

a
z
n
n
1
2

Y ( z )(1 a1 z 1 a2 z 2 ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 )
Y ( z ) X ( z )(b0 b1 z 1 b2 z 2 ) Y ( z )(a1 z 1 a2 z 2 )

k 0,1,2

## 3.4 System stability

We can rewrite the difference equation as
y ( k ) Ax(k 1) By (k 1) A( x(k 1)

B
y (k 1))
A

A( x(k 1) y ( k 1)), B A

## If A=1 and =0.9, for an impulse input we have

y (k ) x(k 1) 0.9 y (k 1))

k 0 1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1
0.9 0.81 0.729
It decreases exponentially, a stable system.

## 3.4 System stability

If K=1 and =1.2, we have

## y (k ) x(k 1) 1.2 y (k 1))

k
0
1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1 1.2 1.44 1.728 2.074
It increases exponentially, an unstable system.

## 3.4 System stability

If K=1 and = -0.8, we have
y (k ) x(k 1) 0.8 y (k 1))
k
0
1
2
3
4
...
x(k) 1
0
0
0
0
...
y(k) 0
1
-0.8 0.64 -0.512

## It decays exponentially, and alternates in sign,

a gradual stable system.

## 3.4 System stability

It is clear that the value of determines the system
stability. Why is so important?
First, let A=1, we have
1
1
y (k ) x(k 1) y (k 1) Y ( z ) X ( z ) z Y ( z ) z

Y ( z)
z 1
1
G( z)

1
X ( z ) 1 z
z

## From the transfer function, we can see that z= is a

pole of the system. The pole of the system will
determine the nature of the response.

## 3.4 System stability

For continuous system, we have stable,
critical stable and unstable areas in s
domain.
Critical stable area

Stable area

Unstable area

## 3.4 System stability

What is the stable area, critical stable area and
unstable area for a discrete system in Z
domain ?
Stable area:
unit circle
Critical stable: on the unit circle
Unstable area: outside of the unit circle

## 3.4 System stability

GP (s)
sT
G HP ( z ) (1 z ) Z
,
z

As
For the critical stable area in s domain s=j,
z e sT e j cos j sin
(cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 1

## As is from 0 to , then the angle will be

greater than 2. That is the critical area
forms a unit circle in Z domain.

## 3.4 System stability

If we choose a point from the stable area at S domain, eg
s=- a + j, we have

z e sT e a j e a (cos j sin )

e a (cos ) 2 (sin ) 2 e a

Let eg s=- + j

z e sT e j e (cos j sin )

2
2

e
(cos

(sin

e
around
0
The stable area in Z domain is within a unit
circle

the origin.

## 3.4 System stability

Exercise 2: Prove that the unstable area in Z
domain is the area outside the unit circle.
Hint: Follow the above procedures.

## 3.4 System stability

Z domain responses

## 3.5 Closed-loop transfer function

Computer controlled system
GHP(z)
R(z)

M(z)

E(z)
Gc(z)

Computer system

C(z)
ZOH

GP(s)

Plant

## 3.5 Closed-loop transfer function

Lets find out the closed-loop transfer
function
C ( z ) M ( z )G HP ( z ) E ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )
E ( z ) R( z ) C ( z )
C ( z ) ( R ( z ) C ( z ))GC ( z )G HP ( z )
C ( z ) C ( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z ) R( z )GC ( z )G HP ( z )
GC ( z )G HP ( z )
C ( z)
T ( z)

R ( z ) 1 GC ( z )G HP ( z )

## 3.5 Closed-loop transfer function

C(z): output;
E(z): error
R(z): input; M(z): controller output
GC(z): controller
GP(z)/G(z): plant transfer function
GHP(z): transfer function of plant + ZOH
T(z): closed-loop transfer function
GC(z)GHP(z): open-loop transfer function
1+ GC(z)GHP(z)=0: characteristic equation

## 3.6 System block diagram

C(z)

+
R(s)

G(s)

C ( z)
G( z)

R( z ) 1 G ( z ) H ( z )

H(s)
C(s)

+
R(s)

G(s)
H(s)

C(z)

C ( z)
G( z)

R( z ) 1 GH ( z )

## 3.6 System block diagram

The difference between G(z)H(z) and GH(z)
G(z)H(z)=Z[G(s)]Z[H(s)]
GH(z)=Z[G(s)H(s)]
Usually, G(z)H(z) GH(z)
G(z)H(z) means they are connected through a
sampler. Whereas GH(z) they are connected
directly.

## 3.6 System block diagram

Example: Find the closed-loop transfer
function for the system below.
+
R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

H(s)

## Solution: The open-loop is G1(z)G2H(z).

The forward path is G1(z)G2(z).

C(z)

+
R(s)

G1(s)

G2(s)

C(z)

H(s)

## E ( z ) R( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ); R( z ) E ( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 H ( z )

E ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))
C ( z ) E ( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) G1 ( z )G2 ( z ) R( z ) /(1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z ))
C ( z ) R( z )G1 ( z )G2 ( z )
T ( z)

R( z ) 1 G1 ( z )G2 H ( z )

## 3.6 System block diagram

*Exercise 3: Find the output for the closedloop system below.
+
R(s)

G(s)
H(s)

C(s)

C(z)

GR( z )
C ( z)
1 GH ( z )

## 3.6 System block diagram

*Exercise 4: Find the output for the closedloop system below.
+
R(s)

G1(s)
H(s)

RG1 ( z )G2 ( z )
C ( z)
1 G1G2 H ( z )

G2(s)

C(z)

Study book
Module 3: Systems and transfer functions
(Please try the problems on page 3.46-47)
Textbook
Chapter 3 : Z-plane analysis of discretetime control system (pages 74-83 & 104114).

Tutorial
ab

## Exercise 1: Given a ZOH and a plant GP ( s)

( s a)( s b)
Determine their z-domain transfer function.

ab
GP ( s )
1

(
1

z
)
Z

s
s
(
s

a
)(
s

b
)

GHP ( z ) (1 z 1 ) Z

k
k
k1
1 b (a b) a (b a )
2 3 (1 z 1 ) Z

sa
sb
s s a s b
s

(1 z 1 ) Z

1
b
a
1
1
(1 z ) Z
Z
Z

s
a

b
s

a
b

a
s

1
b
1
a
1

(1 z 1 )

1
a b 1 e aT z 1 b a 1 e bT z 1
1 z
(1 z 1 ) a b
b
a

a b 1 z 1 1 e aT z 1 1 e aT z 1
1

Tutorial
You are required to implement a digital PID
controller which will enable a control object with
K n2
a transfer function of
G ( s)

s 2 2 n s n2

## where K=0.2, n=10 rad/s, and =0.3.

to track a) a unit step signal, and b) a unit ramp
signal.
1) Simulate this control object and find the responses using
Matlab or other packages/computer languages.

Tutorial
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop for G(s)
and explain your choice.
3) Derive the discrete-time system transfer function GHP(z)
from G(s).
4) Design a digital PID controller for the discrete-time
system, and optimize its parameters with respect to the
M
performance criterion below
using steepest descent
k ek
minimization process S
.
k 0
5) Simulate the resulting closed-loop system and find the
responses. Swapping the input signals a) and b), discuss
the resulting responses.

Tutorial
2) Choose a suitable sample period for a control loop
for G(s) and explain your choice.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Sampling theorem
Input signal
Bandwidth of a system
Bold plots
Applying sampling theorem
Sampling frequency