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Chapter 5: Energetics and Thermodynamics

IB Standard Level Chemistry

You know that enthalpy (H) is the heat or energy content in a
A reactions reactants and products also have enthalpy.

H = Hproducts Hreactants


(i.e. final initial)

This is usually expressed as an overall enthalpy change, H.

Enthalpy Changes: Formation

Hf is the energy change on forming a substance from its
individual parts

Na(s) + Cl2(g) -> NaCl(s)



Enthalpy Changes: Combustion

Hc is the energy change on completely combusting a

2H2(s) + O2(g) -> 2H2O(s)



Enthalpy Changes
Always include state symbols for enthalpy change

H can be positive or negative

If H < 0, the products have less energy than the reactants
If H > 0, the products have more energy than the reactants

Enthalpies of Reaction
When H is positive, the reaction is endothermic
The system takes in energy, and the surroundings lose energy
A thermometer will detect a decrease in energy
When H is negative, the reaction is exothermic
The system loses energy, and the surroundings gain energy
A thermometer will detect an increase in temperature

Using the values from the Data Booklet, write a formula for
the combustion of hydrogen, along with its enthalpy value.
State if it is endothermic or exothermic.