You are on page 1of 33

CCB 3024/CBB 3024

PROCESS PLANT DESIGN
4 Credit-Hour Core Course
Semester May 2013

Lecturer : Dr Balasubramanian Periyasamy
Lecture Time
Location

: Mon 10 am – 12 noon ; Tues 12 PM – 2:00 PM

: LT C2 ;

01-02-04

Sincere thanks to
Prof. Shuhaimi Mahadzir
&
Prof. Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib
for the lecture notes of the first part of this course

Semester May 2011

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Engineering Knowledge: Apply knowledge of mathematics, science,
PO1 engineering fundamentals and engineering specialization to the solution of
complex engineering problems
Problem Analysis: Identify, formulate, research literature & analyze complex
PO2 engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of
mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences.
Design & Development of solutions: Design solutions for complex
engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet
PO3 specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety,
cultural, societal & environmental considerations.
Investigation: Conduct investigation into complex problems using research
based knowledge & research methods including DOE, analysis and
PO4
interpretation of data and synthesis of information to provide valid conclusions.
Modern Tool Usage: Create, select & apply appropriate techniques, resources
PO5 & modern engineering & IT tool, including prediction & modeling, to complex
engineering activities, with an understanding of the limitations.

being able to comprehend & PO9 write effective reports & design documents. Semester July . make effective presentations & give and receive clear instructions. Life Long Learning : Recognize the need for. safety. e. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and PO8 responsibilities and norms of engineering practice. Environment & Sustainability: Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and PO7 need for sustainable development. Individual &Team Work: Function effectively as an individual & as a member or PO10 leader in diverse teams & in multidisciplinary settings. and have the preparation and ability PO11 to engage in independent and life long learning in the broadest context of technological change.g. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community & with society at large. legal & cultural issues & the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practice.PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The Engineer& Society: Apply reasoning informed by contextual knowledge to PO6 assess societal. health.

as a PO12 member & leader in a team. to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Project Management & Finance : Demonstrate knowledge & understanding of engineering & management principles & apply these to one’s own work. Semester July .

COURSE OUTCOMES – CBB 3024 CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN 3   Integrate knowledge from previous CO1 chemical engineering courses in designing a chemical process system K S A PO1 PO2 PO3 PO4 PO5 PO6 PO7 PO8 PO3 PO9 PO7 x Apply conceptual process design and CO2 synthesis tools in designing a chemical process system CO3 Apply a systematic approach or method to design a chemical process system   x           x     x         x     x     x   K – Knowledge S – Skill A – Attitude .

COURSE OUTCOMES – CCB 3024 CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN K S A PO3 PO5 PO7 PO3 PO5 PO7 PO3 PO5 PO7 3 CO1 Integrate knowledge from basic/fundamentals Chemical Engineering in designing a chemical process system x CO2 Apply conceptual process design and synthesis tools in designing a chemical process system x x x x CO3 Apply a systematic approach to design a chemical process system x x x x CO4 C05 C06 Semester July Execute process design approach by incorporating the concepts of sustainable development Demonstrate economics of chemical plants through plant cost estimation investment and time value of money Defend the assigned projects as individuals and as a team x x x x x x x x .

Course Content. Topic 1-2 Introduction to Plant Design and Economics (Approaches and Stages of Process Design) Assessment Short test 1 3-4 General Plant Consideration (Plant Layout/Utility System) 5-8 Synthesis of Reactor Separation System Short test 2/ (Fundamentals and Selection of Reaction System & Separation Project/Test 1 System) 9-12 Synthesis of Reactor Separation System Short test 2/ (Fundamentals and Selection of Reaction System & Separation Project/Test 1 System) 13-16 Synthesis of Reactor Separation System (Process Recycle and Distillation Sequencing) 17-20 Heat Integration (Composite Curve & Heat Recovery Pinch. Assign 1/Test 2 Problem Table Algorithm) 21-24 Heat Integration (Grand Composite Curve & Multiple Utilities) Assign 1 25-28 Heat Integration (HEN Design) Assign 1/Test 2 29-32 Process Flow sheeting (Flow sheet Synthesis & Simulation. Delivery & Assessment Lecture No. Model Formulation. Solution Strategies) Test 1/Project/ Assign 1 Project/ Test 2 .

Typical Unit Operation and Control Strategies) Short test 4 Assessment : Quizzes /Short tests– 4 (5%) Assignments . Pairing of Variables in MIMOS. Waste Minimization and Life Cycle Analysis Short test 4 53-56 Plant Wide Control (Material & Quality Control.1 (10%) Tests . Mass Transfer Equipment) Assign 2 41-44 Equipment Design & Specification (Mass Transfer & Reactor Equipment) Assign 2 45-48 Equipment Design & Specification (Pressure Vessel Design) Assign 2 49-52 Environmental Studies & Consideration – Effluent Treatment.2 (5%) Project .1 (60%) .2 (20%) Final Exam . Delivery & Assessment Lecture No.Course Content. Topic Assessment 33-36 Economics of Chemical Plants Project/Short test 3 37-40 Equipment Design & Specification (Material Transfer & Handling.

the overall transformation is broken down into a number of steps that provide intermediate transformations.Lecture 1. Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design 1997. the transformation of raw materials into desired products usually cannot be achieved in a single step. Instead. Chemical . Introduction to Plant Design and Economics The purpose of engineering is to create material wealth – Douglas. The goal of the engineer is to design and produce artifacts and systems that are beneficial to mankind – Biegler. How to do so ? Energy In Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Products + Wastes Energy Out WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT THE CHEMICAL PROCESS ? In a chemical process. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988. (Robin Smith. Grossman & Westerberg.

HOW MUCH PROFIT COULD BE DERIVED? HOW DO WE ADDRESS THIS? Concept Design for Chemical Process .WHAT SORT OF PROCESSINGS ARE LOCATED IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS? .HOW DO WE SEQUENCE THE PROCESSING STEPS? .TO WHAT EXTEND CAN WE EXPECT EACH OF THE PROCESSING STEP TO PERFORM AND WHAT FEATURES ARE REQUIRED? .HOW MUCH ENERGY IS REQUIRED AND HOW MUCH IS PRODUCED? . QUESTIONS? .HOW MUCH WASTES ARE GENERATED? .Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Energy Products + Wastes Energy SO. A NUMBER OF PROCESSING STEPS MADE UP THE CHEMICAL PROCESS.HOW MUCH FEEDS DO WE NEED AND HOW MUCH PRODUCTS ARE PRODUCED? .

. i. the major features that distinguishes design problems from other types of engineering problems is that they are under defined.Raw Materials + Other Feeds CHEMICAL PROCESS Energy Products + Wastes Energy PROCESS PLANT DESIGN IS THE NAME OF THE GAME HERE ! LITTLE OR LIMITED INFORMATIONS ARE AVAILABLE BEFORE COMING UP WITH A COMPLETE PROCESS But so many possibilities or solutions ! Perhaps.e. only a very small fraction of the information needed to define a design problem is available from the problem statement..

Once the process concept has been designed which produces process flowsheet. Distillation . the equipment design then has to be performed…..

of stages for contact 2. 1. Performance/Capacity Rating or Sizing Equipments’ Dimensions – diameter & height Heat Transfer Area Needed No.The equipment design comprises of . Vessel Mechanical Design Internal Design Wall thickness Support Design Pipe fittings & Reinforcement .

Process Safety - Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) - Risk Assessment HAZOP study 2.he process safety and control strategy has to be devised. Risk Assessment Matrix . 1. Process Control Strategy - Material Control - Product Control Overall Plant and Equipment ….

And Waste Treatment/Minimisation need to also be addressed… 1.Adjusting processes to minimise the generation of waste REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK UTILITIES . Waste Treatment (conventional) - Suitable ‘end of pipe’ treatment on the effluent (gases & liquids) 2. Waste Minimisation (sustainability) .

In finalising the process and equipment design. several stages of economic analysis could be conducted … First step. insurance etc) ….Utility Third Step (after equipments designed) EP 3 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material – Utility – Annualised Cost of Equipment The economics analysis continues with other costs (manpower. Pay back time. EP 1 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material Second Step (after mass balance developed) EP 2 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material . Return on Investment Internal Rate of Return with profitability analysis conducted at the end to assess project viability …… .

.Finally …..

Approaches and Stages of Process Plant Design In the first stage. ADDRESS THE REQUIRED INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS .Lecture 2. In general conceptual process design has to address two major activities …. ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 2. conceptual process design has to be conducted. 1.

………. DEFINITION OF A FLOWSHEET. FLOWSHEET IS A DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PROCESS STEPS AND ITS INTERCONNECTIONS.and the target is to create the best possible feasible flowsheet for the process. RECYCLE STEAM REACTOR FEED PRODUCT 1 CW Str1 Str2 Str3 Str4 Str5 Str6 Str7 F T P x Str8 Str9 PRODUCT 2 H WHAT OTHER INFORMATIONS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN A FLOWSHEET ? AND HOW DO YOU GET SUCH INFORMATION ? THIS IS WHAT YOU WANT AT THE END OF THE STAGE ! .

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OR METHOD IS REQUIRED The approach or method should be able to help in addressing these questions … Why is the unit operation selected ? How are the unit operations connected ? What are the utilities required and approximate amount ? How will it be supplied to the process unit operations ? What wastes will be generated? However. we must also recognised that process design is an art ! If we reflect on the nature of process synthesis and analysis.e.. …. . creative process. we recognize that process design actually is an art. (Douglas. as much as we would like to have a systematic approach or method. i. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988) This course will attempt to develop the art to conduct process design ! .

ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR CW PRODUCT 1 PRODUCT 2 FLOWSHEE T 2. what criteria should be adopted besides economics during the design activities? 1. BUT HOW TO OPTIMISE ? ...Now.. ADDRESS THE REQUIRED INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS QUANTIFIABLE FACTOR ! VERSUS NON .QUANTIFIABLE FACTOR ! MINIMISE COST HIGH SAFETY & INTEGRITY MINIMISE WASTES GENERATION GOOD OPERATIONAL ASPECTS MINIMISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION ..

Consider back the flowsheet ! RECYCLE STEAM REACTOR FEED PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 OPTIMISING A SINGLE UNIT/STEP IN THE PROCESS OPTIMISING THE INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UNITS/STEPS IN THE PROCESS EG. DISTILLATION COLUMN RR --> ENERGY TOTAL COST RR CONTINUOUS FUNCTION PARAMETER OPTIMISATION RR --> CAPITAL MANY POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS WHICH LEAD TO DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF FLOWSHEET THUS DIFFERENT ECONOMIC IMPACT EVEN TO THE EXTENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL UNIT ITSELF! ? DIS-CONTINUOUS FUNCTION STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION How do we tackle them ? .

E. Chem. Systematic Method of Chemical Process Design 1997 Douglas. BATCH VS CONTINUOUS 2. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET 3. RECYCLE STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET 4. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK 4. UTILITIES DECISION ARE BASED ON ENGINEERING GUIDELINES ESTABLISHED AND MATHEMATICAL OPTIMISATION CONCEPT IS BASED ON "BUILDING AN IRREDUCIBLE STRUCTURE" Smith R. Comp. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK MATHEMATICAL METHOD MIXED INTEGER LINEAR/ NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING USE A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHOD TO SOLVE AND GIVE SOLUTION FOR THE PROCESS. 1985 Biegler. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF SEPARATION SYSTEM 5. Grossman & Westerberg. DECISION ARE BASED ON SOLELY MATHEMATICAL OPTIMISATION CRITERIA CONCEPT IS BASED ON "CREATING AND OPTIMISING A REDUCIBLE STRUCTURE" Grossman I.Chemical Process Design 1995 HIERARCHICAL APPROACH USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE . REACTOR 2.Consider the approaches/methods which have been introduced to deal with such complex optimisation ? HEURISTIC METHOD ONION MODEL USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE .... 1. Eng. SEPARATION AND RECYCLE SYSTEM 3. 9: 463. 1. SIMULTANEOUS SOLUTION OF ALL THE SYSTEM.Conceptual Design of Chemical Process 1988 .

As such. This keeps the process (structure) irreducible and features which are technically/economically redundant are not included.FOLLOWS ONION LOGIC REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK Design starts from the centre ( heart of process ) which is the reactor. What do you see are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ? Advantages UTILITIES Disadvantages . Unit/Equipment is added only if it is economically justified based on the current available information.HEURISTIC METHOD – The Onion Model . many best local optimal decisions are made since the whole picture is incomplete. At each layer. decision has to be made to complete the design requirement for the stage.

HEURISTIC METHOD – The Hierarchical Approach The conceptual design is performed based on 5 different stages. The approach is somewhat different by tackling the 5 different level that are classified differently. Level 1 Decision : Batch vs Continuous Level 2 Decision : Fixing the Input-Output Structure Level 3 Decision : Determining the Recycle Structure for the Process Level 4 Decision : Determining the Separation System Level 5 Decision : Determining the Heat Exchanger Network WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ON THE STATEMENT CONTAIN WITHIN THE SHADED BOX ? REACTOR SEPARATION & RECYCLE SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK UTILITIES Compare these statements to the onion model ! At each level except level 1. Some level of process design has to be conducted on the units/process placed at every stages. . alternatives have to be generated and assessed to see its economic and operational potential. The 5 levels are .

The design problem is formulated into sets of mathematical equations which has to be solved by the mathematical programming.CREATION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE/HYPERSTRUCTURE A major (super) structure is created which embedded within it all feasible process (including its operations) and all feasible interconnections that are candidates for an optimal design. Started off with many redundant features. the programming optimise and reduce the process (structure) to an optimal solution.MATHEMATICAL METHOD – The Mixed Integer Linear/Nonlinear Programming . What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ? Advantages other process alternatives Semester July 2004 Disadvantages . The method is completely automated and depends only on the computer programming to solve it.

From the conceptual process design. The next stage would then be to address the equipment design … RECYCLE STEAM FEED REACTOR PRODUCT 1 CW PRODUCT 2 Heat Exchanger Reactor Distillation Type of Exchanger (Plate / Shell & Tube) Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat Transfer Area Pressure Drop Exchanger Configuration Type of Reactor Reaction Kinetics Reaction Selectivity Reactor Sizing Reactor Temperature & Pressure No of stages Reflux Ratio Feed Location Vapour/Liquid Loading Column Sizing Internals Column Temperature & Pressure . a flowsheet is generated for the process.

Results are then simulated in rigorous simulation model for actual design involving capacity calculation for internals. sizing of reactor could be done based on residence time. Fenske. . Heat Exchanger Kern’s method Rating calculation that will enable the sizing of the heat exchanger to be done Reactor Distillation Reactor From the kinetics obtained from experiment. Gilliland & Underwood No of stages calculation versus reflux ratio could be made and the feed location determined.There are established methods for performing the design of these equipments ….

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is a standard that provides rules for the design. The design is to be done according to standards….Given that each of the equipment will normally involved vessel operated at various pressure and temperature. fabrication. Heat Exchanger Reactor Distillation Pressure Vessel Dimension Shell Thickness Flanges Connection & Reinforcement Support type and Design Corrosion Allowance Welding specification American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It is reviewed every three years. and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. the design of the pressure vessel has to be conducted.. .

. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities …. Inherent Safety Hazard Analysis FIRE Auto Ignition temp. EXPLOSION Chemical Energy vs Physical Energy Deflagration vs detonation Confined vs Unconfined Explosions (VCE) TOXIC RELEASE Time weighed exposure Short term Exposure Ceiling Exposure LC50 & LD50 DOW Index HAZOP Hazard and Operability Study. Flammability Limits Flash Points Minimum Oxygen concentration Flammable liquids are more dangerous than flammable gas Remove or attenuate conditions that could lead to the 3 incidents such as high P and T …. Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. .Health.

thermal oxidation. Environment Environment Waste Minimisation (Clean Process Technology) Waste Treatment Reactor Increase conversion if selectivity is not an issue Product removal for reversible reaction favoring product Set T & P to improve selectivity Air Effluent Particulate. Waste stream recovery Improve heat recovery . Inertial Collectors. Scribbers. Nox Gravity Settlers. Adsorption.Health. CO. Absorption. Filters. CO2. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities …. biological treatment. Distillation Recycling waste stream to suppress by product reaction Feed purification Eliminate use of extraneous material for separation (entrainer) Water Effluent Membrane. Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. catalytic reaction etc. membrane separation etc. SOx. Electrostatic precipitators.

Finally …. You will develop the construction details for a process plant …. ..