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By

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Maria Ciurana
Bernat Cuenca
David Ibáñez
Kristel Laserna

BECAUSE
 We use it to indicate the cause of an event or

situation. It is used to link two clauses together
within a single sentence.
 We need a comma between the clauses only if
the sentence begins with because, not when
because is in the second clause.
 Ex: Because Sam was ill, he couldn’t go to school
 Ex: Sam couldn’t go to school because he was ill.

 Ex: Sam couldn’t go to school because of his illness.  Ex: Because of his illness.BECAUSE OF  We use it where the cause is a noun or noun phrase. Sam couldn’t go to school. .

however. However. As a linking device. however must have punctuation before and after it. .  Ex: It is said. that he went to New York two weeks later.  Ex: Peter wanted to go to London.HOWEVER  We use it to indicate that one fact or idea contrasts with another. which is usually in the preceding sentence(s). he didn’t have enough money.

she wanted to stay with her family in Italy.  Ex: On the one hand. They are usually used in different sentences and can be several sentences apart. she wanted to move to Ireland.ON THE ONE HAND/ ON THE OTHER HAND  We use them together to contrast or compare two facts or ideas. they must have punctuation before and after. . On the other hand. Used in this way.

 Ex: When I was studying in Toronto I missed my parents a lot. . On the other hand. I was having fun there.ON THE OTHER HAND  We use it on its own to contrast or compare a fact or idea with something that was said previously.

It is often used in fixed expressions like contrary to common beliefs/opinion… .CONTRARY TO  We use it to indicate that a fact or an idea contrasts with another which is untrue. Contrary to is followed by a noun or a noun phrase.

WHEREAS  We use it to indicate that a fact or an idea contrasts with another in the same sentence. .  Ex: Whereas John studied hard. Whereas can come at the beginning of a sentence. We often use it to talk about small differences between things that are quite similar. Andy didn’t study at all. and a comma is needed between the clause if this is the case.

.INDEED  We use it followed by a comma. it could have been fatal. It is highly formal. Indeed.  Ex: That crash was horrible. to introduce information that reinforces or extends a point just made.

IN CONCLUSION  We use it to indicate the beginning of the final point or summary of what is being said.  Ex: In conclusion. . the film wasn’t as good as I expected.

automotive industry has gone broke.ON THE WHOLE  We use it to indicate that we are speaking generally without taking account of unusual cases.  Ex: On the whole. .

we should act against its effects. .  Ex: Global warming is a fact. or to introduce a result of it.THEREFORE  We use it to indicate that something follows logically from what has been said. Therefore.

 Ex: We know that drugs are harmful.GIVEN THIS  We use it to indicate that if we accept something is true. then what we are about to say follows logically from it. . Given this. we should advise people not to take them.

 Ex: Despite being allowed to go.DESPITE/IN SPITE OF  We use it to indicate that something is not influenced or prevented by something else.  Ex: Despite the fact that we had the money. Despite or in spite of is followed by a noun phrase or –ing form and cannot be followed by a finite verb.  Ex: In spite of the rain. despite/in spite of can be followed by a clause with a finite verb after the fact that. . we didn’t buy the gift. However. they went shopping. she decided not to.

. generally.  Ex: Private schools have.IN COMPARISON  We use it in formal language to examine the difference between two things. better facilities in comparison to public ones.

though. .ALTHOUGH/THOUGH  We use it to indicate that there is an unexpected contrast between what happens in the main clause and what happens in the adverbial clause. Though (but not although) is also used as an adverb to indicate that the information in a clause contrasts with the information in a previous sentence. Though is less formal. I’d rather go to the mountain. I don’t like driving in the city.  Ex: I like driving.  Ex: Although most people prefer to go to the beach.

I saw one of my friends. A comma is needed if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause.  Ex: As I was drinking a beer. In this use as is a conjunction joining two clauses in the same sentence. .AS  Used to begin a subordinate clause to indicate that an event or situation happens or exists at the same time as another.

 Ex: I arrived late. By then. the flight had taken off.BY THEN  Used to say that something happens before that point in time. .

 Ex: It should have been a nice day. provided (that) it hadn’t rained. .PROVIDED  We can begin subordinate clauses with provided to say that something is conditional. A comma is needed if the subordinate clause comes before the main clause.

.RESULT IN  We use it + noun to express effect.  Ex: The wind can result in the tennis match cancellation.

 Ex: I saw you so I know you were there.SO  We use it as a conjunction to talk about the consequence of an event. and as an adverb to indicate a conclusion or realisation that is a consequence of previous events or information. let’s go! .  Ex: We have an important match right now. So.

What is more.  Ex: She has failed the exam. she has got a very low mark. .WHAT IS MORE  We use it to add emphasis to a point which supports or extends a previous statement.

it started raining. to cap it all. It can begin a sentence or occur in the middle of one.  Ex: It was crowded. there were not hot dog vans about and.TO CAP IT ALL  Used to express that something is the final event in a sequence that is already becoming difficult to endure. I couldn’t see the runners. . It is an informal idiom.

.. 5......... although.....) John was talking to his best friend...-Alice couldn’t study (.......-Having a dog is a high responsability (.... 1. choosing from these..-(.) you must feed it..-When they were at classroom.. Neil was paying atention (.. because of........ 6.. on the one hand. indeed...Complete the following sentences using a suitable linking device.) He has lost his job he can afford expensive clothes..... but (.... (..) the noise that came from the street..... whereas.....-Andrew hadn’t studied for his maths exam.... therefore....... . 3...) she is quite selfish.) she is nice.) he has failed.. 4.. on the other hand.. 2.....-(...

indeed. because of. 3. 5. 6. 1.-Having a dog is a high responsability (INDEED)you must feed it.-When they were at classroom.-Andrew hadn’t studied for his maths exam. choosing from these.-Alice couldn’t study (BECAUSE OF) the noise that came from the street.-(ON THE ONE HAND) she is nice. whereas.Complete the following sentences using a suitable linking device. on the other hand. . 2. but (ON THE OTHER HAND) she is quite selfish. Neil was paying atention (WHEREAS) John was talking to his best friend. 4. although.(ALTHOUG) He has lost his job he can afford expensive clothes.. pn the one hand. (THEREFORE) he has failed. therefore.