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Session 2 B

Research Design
Research for Marketing

Ashis Mishra. IIMB 2 . organizing & evaluating data.Research Process • Any research comprises defining & redefining problem. collecting. and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. making deduction & reaching conclusions. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. • Clifford Woody 7/6/15 Dr.

Problem Definition Project Proposal (marketing research objectives. 4. 5. Hypothesis Formulation Conclusive Research / Quantitative Research Report writing Hypotheses for further research Statistically valid reasons / relations as a proof of the hypotheses Report containing the methodology and solution to the management decision problem . Exploratory Research / Qualitative Research Research Questions – variables / relationships for further research (validation) 3.Steps in a Research Process Stages Outcome 1. initial hypotheses – variables to start the research) 2.

Problem Definition • Management Decision Problem – General contextual familiarity / methodological familiarity with the problem – Break down the problem into many clear components and integrating them into a coherent set – Developing and examining some starting hypotheses (from the broken down components) about the problem about the why / how of the problem • Construct Identification • Construct development – Evaluating the cost and value of the information (seriousness of the consequences envisaged) • Marketing research Problem / research objective .


IIMB 6 .Exploratory Research Tools • Secondary Data Analysis • Pilot (Questionnaire/Interview) • Experience Survey Survey – Focus Group – Depth Interview • Projective Techniques • Case Study Method 7/6/15 Dr. Ashis Mishra.

Ashis Mishra. IIMB 7 .Development of Research Questions and Hypotheses Components of the Research Problem Objective / Theoretic al Analyti Framewo cal rk Model 7/6/15 Research Questions Hypotheses Dr.

Conclusive research • Descriptive research – – – – Sampling Plan Analysis Plan Instruments / Tools to be used Deliverables • Causal research – Identification of extraneous / confounding variables – Design of experiments (Pre / True / Statistical) – Hypotheses testing .

Ashis Mishra. had to deal with passenger loyalty – Management decision problem: how to attract more and more loyal passengers? – The broad marketing research problem was to identify the factors that influence loyalty of airline travelers. as other major airlines.Illustration • United Airlines. IIMB 9 . 7/6/15 Dr.

Ashis Mishra. IIMB 10 .Illustration • Secondary data. • A graphical model stipulated that consumers evaluate competing airlines based on factors of the choice criteria to select a preferred airline. and Brand name. exploratory research. theoretical framework. Convenience of scheduling. Frequent-flyer program. and empirical evidence revealed that the consumers’ choice of an airline is influenced by: – Safety. 7/6/15 Dr. Price of the ticket.

– Indeed. and the same fares. • Consequently. Ashis Mishra.Illustration • The problem was that major airlines were quite similar on these factors. "airlines offer the same schedules. the same service. 7/6/15 Dr.” – The basic answer is to improve service. IIMB 11 . • Food turned out to be the solution. United Airlines had to find a way to differentiate itself.

D Power & Associates' survey on "current and future trends in airline food industry". Ashis Mishra. indicated that "food service is a major contributor to customers’ loyalty". • The airline's Marketrak survey told United Airlines that "customers wanted more varied and up-to date food. IIMB 12 .Illustration • Secondary data.” 7/6/15 Dr. • This survey also emphasized the importance of food brands. like the J.

IIMB 13 . but with consistent quality – H4: 7/6/15 Travelers prefer exotic food Dr. • RQ1: How important is food for airline customers? – H1:Food is an important factor for airline travelers – H2:Travelers value branded food – H3:Travelers prefer larger food portions. Ashis Mishra.Illustration • The following research questions and hypotheses may be posed.

Focus groups and surveys were conducted to check customers' perceptions of food in United Airlines' aircraft. measurement of airline travel and loyalty. etc. • This kind of research helped United Airlines to define their marketing research problem.Illustration • Characteristics which influence the research design included the identification of competing airlines (Delta. 7/6/15 Dr.). and develop the approach. Ashis Mishra. American. factors of the choice criteria (already identified). IIMB 14 .

. Ashis Mishra. • This resulted in better service. new coffee branded products (e. increasing customer satisfaction and 7/6/15 fostering loyalty. • United Airlines then made a few changes: – – – – new "culinary menus." larger portions of food.g. Dr. IIMB 15 .Illustration • The results provided support for all the hypotheses (H1 to H4). Godiva chocolates).