You are on page 1of 21



• Reported Speech (also called Indirect
Speech) is generally used to communicate
what someone else has said, but without
using their exact words. A few changes are
necessary; often a pronoun has to be
changed and the verb is usually moved
back a tense, where possible. We will
explain these changes in more detail later.
He said that he was going to come.
(The person's exact words were "I'm going to

said the girl.Changes in Verb tenses Present Simple  Past Simple “I love him”.  She said that she had eaten. she said. Present Continuous  Past Continuous “I am feeling hungry”.  He said that he was feeling hungry. Present Perfect Simple  Past Perfect Simple “I have eaten”. he said.  The girl said that she loved him. .

 He said that she had been crying. he said. . Past Perf. Cont. Past Perfect  Past Perfect (No Change) “I had seen enough”. (No Change) “I had been cleaning”. “She was crying”.  Past Perf. Cont. I said.Changes in Verb tenses Past Continuous  Past Perf.  She said that she had seen enough. Cont. she said.  I said that I had been cleaning.

. she said. Must  Had to “I must do my chores”.  She said that she would come along.  The girl said that she could read.Other Verb Forms Will  Would “I will come along”. Can  Could “I can read!”. he said.  He said that he had to do his chores. said the girl.

he asked. May  Might “We may go out”.  He asked if he should go to work.Other Verb Forms Shall  Should “Shall I go to work?”.  They said that they might go out . they said.

Time And Place References Time and place references often have to change: Direct Speech Indirect Speech Now Today Here This This week Tomorrow Then That Day There That That Week The Following Day The Next Day The Day After .

Time And Place References Direct Speech Indirect Speech Next Week Yesterday Last Week Ago The Following Week The Next Week The Week After The Previous Day The Day Before The Previous Week The Week Before Previously .

Time And Place References Direct Speech Indirect Speech Tonight Last Saturday That Night The Previous Saturday The Saturday Before The Following Saturday The Saturday After The Next Saturday That Saturday Next Saturday .

’ he said.Personal Pronoun Changes(I):  They need to be altered according to the context.  Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words.’ He said that he had forgotten his keys at home.‘You’ve overcooked the steak again.He said. He told Mary that she had overcooked the steak again. ’I like my new house’. I said that I liked my new house. Mary. . .I said. ’I’ve forgotten my keys at home. . .

. “I am going to buy a new car”. confusions can arise when we change from direct to indirect Speech. the subject in the direct speech and the pronoun refer to the same person. Tom told me. María said that she was going to buy a new car. In this case. said María.Personal Pronoun Changes (II) However. In order to avoid ambiguity. Tom told me he/the burglar had entered the room by breaking the window. a noun could be inserted: ‘He entered the room by breaking the window’.

He told me he lived in Valencia.Uses of “That”  In reported speech. He told me that he lived in Valencia. . but it is optional. the word “that” is often used.

instead we use “if”. backshift of tenses and changing of expressions of time. changing of the person.Questions If you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps you should follow. He asked me if I would come to the party. . That's why the word order is: subject -verbobjects(direct and indirect)  “That” is never used in questions. the sentence becomes a statement. In Reported speech there is no question anymore.

Questions  Yes/No Questions: use of “if” Peter: "Do you play the piano?" Peter asked me whether (if) I played the piano.Questions: repetition of wh. .  Wh.word in reported speech Peter: "When do you play the piano?" Peter asked me when I played the piano.

Agree + that(optional)/ to + inf -He agreed (that) we should go home. -He agreed to go home.We asked to go home. . .Verbs We can use a wide variety of different verbs to introduce reported speech: Verb clause Example Advise + to + inf She advised us to go home. Ask + if/whether+ to+infinitive -We asked if we could go home.

-He promised (that) he would love me eternally. -The personal trainer said that I should do more exercise.Verb clause Complain +that Offer + to + infinitive Promise + (that) / to + infinitive Regret+(that)/-ing Say + (that) Example she complained that her soup was cold. -Laura regrets (that) she dyed her hair. . -Laura regrets having dyed her hair. .He promised to love me eternally. They offered to do the shopping.

Other verbs  Deny + (that)/ -ing  Insist + (that)/ on + -ing  Invite + to + infinitive  Recommend+ (that) / -ing  Suggest+ (that) / -ing  Tell+ (that)/ to + infinitive  Threaten + (that) /to +infinitive  Warn + (that) /to + infinitive/about+-ing .

there is often no tense change. or if the situation hasn’t changed yet. Anna said that she is studying at the University.Exceptions to the Verb Change rule When something is reported that is a general truth. Anna said that the sun is hot. .

Exercises • 1. “I will be visiting Italy in December. “I worked all day!” Answer: Professor Jones said he had worked all day. • 2. “I am watching TV. . • 3.” Answer: James said that he was watching TV.) The president said.) James said.” Answer: The president said that he would be visiting Italy in December.) Professor Jones said.

• 5. . “I have to go to the airport.) The weatherman announced. “It may rain today. now!” Answer: My father screamed that he had to go to the airport then.Exercises • 4.) My father screamed.” Answer: The weatherman announced that it might rain that day.

Beatriu Cardona.Group Members: Anna Andújar Forner Annabel Kay Ruiz Ernesto Maravilla Frías Laura Pons Fernández María Ruiz Peris Rut Villar Sánchez If you have any queries. . please ask our dearest teacher.