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DESIGN OF LIFT

For design of lifts factors to be


considered are
1. Population or no. of people who
require lift service.
2. Handling capacity or maximum
flow rate required by the people.
3. Interval or
required.

quality

of

service

1.Population : Population is
calculated based on occupancy
type of the building
Type
Residential

Occupancy
area/per person
12.5

Educational

Institutional

15
3

Assembly hall with


(a)Dance floor
(b)Dinning

0.6
1.5

Business

10

Mercantile
(a)With basement
(b)With shops on
uppers

3
6

Industrial

10

Storage

30

Hazardous

10

Above area per person is gross


area of the floor in square meters. In
case of office building 75% of the
inherent occupancy is expected to
arrive in time (period of hr. before
opening time which peak traffic
period also).
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Floating population may also be


there to counterfeit the effect of late
coming persons. 100% population as
calculated from floor occupancy basis
to be adopted as total population to
be served, during peak hours.

2.Quantity of Service :
The quantity of service is a
measure of the passenger handling
capacity of a vertical transport
system. It is measured in terms of
the total number of passengers
handled during each five minutes
peak period of the day.

3.Quality of Service :
The quality of service on the other
hand is generally measured by the
passenger waiting time of the
various floors. Quality of service or
Acceptable interval:
20 to 25
Excellent
seconds
30 to 35
Good
seconds
35 to 40
Fair
seconds 8

Handling Capacity & RTT :


The handling capacity is calculated by
the formula:
H=

(300 x Q x 100)/T x P

Where
H = Handling capacity as the percentage
of
the peak population handled
during 5
min.
Q = Average number of passengers
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T = waiting interval, and


P = Total population to be handled
during peak morning period. (It is
related to
the area by a particular
bank of lifts)
The value of Q depends on the
dimensions of the car. It may be noted
that the capacity loaded always to its
maximum capacity during each trip
and, therefore, for calculate the value
of Q is taken as 80% of the maximum
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carry capacity of the car.

The waiting interval is calculated


by the formula :
T = RTT/N
Where,
T = waiting interval
N = number of lifts, and

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RTT = round trip time, that is, the


average time required by each lift in
taking one full load of passengers
from ground floor, discharging them
in various upper floors and coming
back to ground floor for taking fresh
passengers for the next trip.

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RTT is the sum of the time required in


the following process :
a) Entry of the passengers on the
ground floor,
b) Exit of the passengers on each floor
of discharge,
c) Door closing time before each floor
of discharge,
d) Door opening time on each
discharging operation,
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e) Acceleration periods,
f) Stopping and leveling periods,
g) Period of full rated speeds between
stops going up, and
h) Period of full rated speeds between
stops going down.
It

is observed that the handling


capacity is inversely proportional to
the waiting time which in turn is
proportional to RTT.
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The
round
trip
time
can
be
decreased not only by increasing the
speed of the lift but also by
improving
the
design
of
the
equipment related to opening and
closing of the landing and car doors,
acceleration, deceleration, levelling
and passenger movement.

15

a) The
most
important
factor
in
shortening
the
time
consumed
between the entry and the exit of
the passengers to the lift car is the
correct design of the door and the
proper car width, for comfortable
entry and exit for passengers, it has
been found that most suitable door
width is 1000 mm and that of car
width is 2000.
b) The utilization of centre opening
doors also favors
the door opening
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Capacity :
Minimum
size
of
car
recommended for a single purpose
building is one suitable duty load of
884 Kg. For large building car 2040
Kg. according to requirement.

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Layout :
The width of car is determined
by the width of entrance, and the
depth of car is regulated by loading
per sq.mtr. Permissible. Centre
opening
door
are
the
most
practicable and most efficiency
entrance with for passenger lifts.

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Speed :
It is dependent upon quality of
service required and the quality of
service desired. Therefore, no set
formulae for indicating the speed can
be given.

Recommended Speeds :
The following are general guidelines :
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Office Building Passenger Lifts


Sl.
No.
1.
2.
3.

No. of Floors
4 to 5 floors
6 to 12 floors
Above 12 floors

20

Recommende
d Speed
1 MPS
1.5 MPS
Above 1.5
MPS

Residential Building Passenger


Lifts

Sl.
No.
1.
2.
3.

No. of Floors

4 to 8 floors
8 to 12 floors
Above 12 floors

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Recommende
d Speed
1 MPS
1.5 MPS
Above 1.5
MPS

Hospital Lifts (Bed cum Passenger


Lifts)
Sl.
No.
1.
2.
3.

No. of Floors
Upto 4 floors
5 to 8 floors
Above 8 floors

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Recommende
d Speed
0.5 MPS
0.75 MPS
1 MPS

Goods Lifts
Sl.
No.
1.
2.

No. of Floors
Upto 6 floors
Above 6 floors

Recommende
d Speed
0.5 MPS
0.75 MPS

Note:
(1) For passenger cum gods lifts speed shall
be followed as that of passenger lifts.
(2) Actual speed shall be worked out on the
basis of traffic analysis.
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Calculation of R.T.T.
The most probable number of floors
on which lift may have to be stopped is
given by statistical formula:

Sn = n [ 1-(n-1)/n)Np]

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Where
Np= Total number of passengers
entering the car at ground floor
(Entrance Lobby) during peak period
which is equal to car capacity.
n
= Total number of floors served
above ground floor.
Sn = Most probable number of stops.
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No. of
upper
floors
served

18
16
14
12

Number of
Passenger/Trip
(Car Capacity)
10

12

14 16 18 20

8
8
7
7

9
9
8
8
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10 11 12 13
10 10 11 12
9
9 10 11
9
9 10 10

Now,
R.T.T. = Entrance lobby time + Sn x
floor serving time + Return trip time
(D-2d)/Vc.
Where, Sn = Probable number of stops
D = Total Lift travel in one direction (m)
d
=
Distance
travelled
during
acceleration or deceleration (m)
Vc = Contract speed of elevator in m/s
also.
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D = ft2
Where,
f = acceleration in m/sec2
t = Time for acceleration
= 2 seconds for lifts upto 2.5 m/s.

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(a)Entrance Lobby Time : This consists


of door opening, car loading, door
closing time and acceleration at
entrance lobby generally ground
floor plus retardation time (while
returning from top).
(b)Floor serving time: This consists of
door opening time, transfer (loading
or unloading time), door closing
time,
acceleration
and
deacceleration (retardation) time.
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(c)Loading/ Unloading time: Practically


observed loading and unloading
time for lifts of different capacity
are given below:
No. of
Entrance
Passenge lobby Loading
rs
time in
second

8
13
16
20

7
12
14
17

30

Transfer time i.e.


loading and
unloading time at
upper floors

1
1.25
1.5
1.6

Actually average time required for


entrance of each passenger in car
depends upon total number of
persons entering the car and already
available in car. It may be one second
per person when car is partially
loaded and 0.75 second when it is
completely empty. Time for emptying
car is less and equal to 0.75 second
for single person but there is a
tendency that all persons vacate the
car simultaneously
after opening if
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(d)Door Opening and closing time:


Door closing time is more as
compared to door opening time. This
is due to fact that when all persons
have entered in the car, it takes time
for people to select and press the
push button for summoning the lift
to various destinations.
Total time for door opening and
closing operation can be taken as
given below:
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Type of Door operation


(a) Power operated single
slide
(b) Power operated double
slide
(c) Power operated centre
Opening
(d) Collapsible with attendant
(e) Collapsible without
attendant

Capacity
8

13

16

20

3.8

3.8

3.2

3.2

2.8

2.8

3.2

3.2

2.5

2.5

Door closing and opening time, at


entrance floor shall be one second more
than all above.
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(e)Distance travelled by lift during


acceleration
or
retardation
is
assumed to be equal. This can be
calculated by using formula.
d = ut + ft2
Where U is initial speed = 0, f is
acceleration or retardation rate and
t is the time elapsed. It is assumed
that
during
each
cycle,
lifts
acceleration and retardation time is
about 2 second. 34

Rate of acceleration will vary with type


of as given below:
Lifts speed m/s

Rate of
acceleration
m/sec2

1
1.5
2.5
More than 2.4 to
8
More than 8 and

0.50
0.75
1.00
2.50
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4.00