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RADIO RECEIVERS

Introduction
A radio receiver is an electronic device that
receives radio waves and converts the information
carried by them to a usable form

Types Of Radio Receiver


Tuned radio frequency
receiver
Superheterodyne Receiver

Tuned Radio Frequency


Receiver
Anten
na

RF
Stage

Detect
or

Audio
Ampli
fier

Audio
power
Ampli
fier

Loud
speak
er

Advantages
They amplify defined frequency.
Signal to noise ratio at output is good.
They are well suited for radio transmitters
and receiver.
The band of frequency over which
amplification is required can be varied.

Drawbacks of TRF
Receiver
TRF receivers are simple to design
and allow the broadcast frequency
535 KHz to 1640 KHz. But at the
higher frequency, it produces
difficulty in design.
Problem of instability.
It has poor audio quality.
B.W vary with tuning.

Super heterodyne Radio Receiver


Mixer /
Converter
Section
RF Section

Pre
selector

IF Section

Mixer

RF
amplifier

Band pass
filter

IF
Amplifier

IF signal

RF signal

Local
Oscillator
Gang tuning

speaker

Audio amplifier
Section

Audio
Amplifier
Audio
Frequencies

Audio detector
Section

AM
Detector

Image Frequency & Rejection


It is formed after the mixer
circuitry.
It is an image of the input
frequency that enters the
mixer.
Represented in two form:
high side injection and low
side injection.
The image is an equal
distance from the LO
frequency on the other side
of it from the signal.
An image must be rejected
For high side :
prior to mixing, because its
indistinguishable and f image f i 2 f IF
impossible to filter out.
For low side :

f image f i 2 f IF

IF

fi

IF

f LO

IF

f image

f image

IF

f LO

fi

Image Frequency & Rejection


Is defined as the ratio of voltage gain at
the input frequency to which the
receiver is tuned to gain the image
frequency.
Numerical measure of the preselector
2 2
The
Image
Rejection
,
IR
,

ability to reject the image frequency.


where The rejection ratio

f im
f
fsi fs
RF

f RF
f im
fs
fi

Q Quality factor of tuned circuit


X
L f
where B bandwidth
B
R
IR(dB ) 20 log

Advantages of SHRR
No variation in bandwidth. It remains
constant
over the entire
frequency range.
High selectivity & sensitivity
High adjacent channel rejection

Receiver characteristics of the radio


1.Selectivity :
Radio receiver should have good selectivity and
selectivity of radio receiver is its ability to reject
unwanted signals.

2.Sensitivity

Ability to amplify weak signals. Broadcast receivers/ radio


receivers should have reasonably high sensitivity so that
it may have good response to the desired signal.

3.Fidelity
The fidelity is the ability of receiver to reproduce all
modulating
frequency equally.
1. Radio receiver should have high fidelity or
accuracy without introducing any distortion.
2. Eg. In an A.M. broadcast the maximum audio
frequency is 5 KHz hence receiver with good
fidelity must produce entire frequency up to 5KHz.

After invention of
superheterodyne,there are
many inventions but it is the best
receiver..