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Subsea Pipelines Global Buckling Design

What happens in a buckle, and how to get one

Scope

What happens in a buckle.

Pros and cons of engineered buckle triggers.

Naturally occurring buckle triggers and how to analyse them.

A bit of large-scale reality.

Buckle shape / mode

Mode – how many lobes:

Buckle shape / mode • Mode – how many lobes:

Buckle type

Two

Upheaval

Lateral

(OK, three):

Upheave that falls over

Buckle type • Two • Upheaval • Lateral • (OK, three): Upheave that falls over
Buckle type • Two • Upheaval • Lateral • (OK, three): Upheave that falls over

What happens in a buckle

Previously covered what a buckle is

“Snap” Buckling

Taylor Gan solutions
Taylor Gan solutions

Failure mode

• Need to exceed bending resistance of pipe as well as frictional resistance of soil (for
Need to exceed bending resistance of pipe as well as
frictional resistance of soil (for a lateral buckle):
Link to snap buckling

Sense checks 1

Snake lay buckles should initiate at

Sense checks 1 • Snake lay buckles should initiate at • • • Post buckle force

Post buckle force – snap / not – should smoothly decrease after buckle:

Sense checks 1 • Snake lay buckles should initiate at • • • Post buckle force

Acceptable model length?

Always look at the pictures!

Sense Checks 2

Strain / displacement plots:

Sense Checks 2 • Strain / displacement plots:

Sense Checks 3

Moment plots:

• Much the same as strain. •

Equivalent moment / curvature should collapse on to moment – curvature plot, analogous to stress / strain.

Sense Checks 3 • Moment plots: • Much the same as strain. • Equivalent moment /

Sense Checks 4

Trends:

Expect critical buckle force to decrease with sleeper height.

Sense Checks 4 • Trends: • • Expect critical buckle force to decrease with sleeper height.

Three out of four isn’t good enough:

Reality Check 1

Can you actually install what you want? •

 

Sleeper size / weight Seabed topography at sleeper landing site

Snake lay radius

Field layout limitations

Buoyancy

Reality Check 2

Can you ensure you will get what you want? •

 

“Racing Line” through a snake lay corridor Potential settlement

The offshore effect deal with.

Sh*t

happens! How much can you

Reality Check 2 • Can you ensure you will get what you want? • • “Racing

Reality Check 3

Rock dumping

Anchoring

Do you really (I mean, really) need them?

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 1 • • • Proven in the field Low peak

Proven in the field Low peak loads

Elevated buckle crown – reduced uncertainty of buckle restraint

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 1 • • • Proven in the field Low peak

Introduce spans •

VIV • Slugging issues Installation

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 1 • • • Proven in the field Low peak

OTC15310 Harrison et al

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 2

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Vertical Sleepers 2 OTC15310 Harrison et al

OTC15310 Harrison et al

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1
Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1 • Lowest buckle initiation force. • Can ‘direct’ your

Lowest buckle initiation force.

Can ‘direct’ your buckle.

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 1 • Lowest buckle initiation force. • Can ‘direct’ your

As per sleepers.

With added installation issues.

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 2

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 2

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 3

Engineered Buckle Triggers – “Modified” Sleepers 3

Engineered Buckle Triggers - Buoyancy Modules

Engineered Buckle Triggers - Buoyancy Modules • • • • • Very low buckle initiation force
• • • •

Very low buckle initiation force

Benign buckles

Engineered Buckle Triggers - Buoyancy Modules • • • • • Very low buckle initiation force

Instability Degradation over time Uncertainty over effects on lateral restraint Limited application

Engineered Buckle Triggers – Snake Lay

• • • • Cheap Reliable and well-proven Low through-life loads Likely to know buckle direction
Cheap
Reliable and well-proven
Low through-life loads
Likely to know buckle direction
Counteracts
Not suitable for very soft soils
Space constraints
Engineered Buckle Triggers – Snake Lay • • • • Cheap Reliable and well-proven Low through-life

Natural Buckle Triggers - Bathymetry

Natural Buckle Triggers - Bathymetry • Reliable – already ‘installed’ • Rough seabed – lots of

Reliable – already ‘installed’

Rough seabed – lots of potential buckle initiators

Can complement engineered triggers

Natural Buckle Triggers - Bathymetry • Reliable – already ‘installed’ • Rough seabed – lots of

Proving what will happen.

Natural Buckle Triggers - Bathymetry • Reliable – already ‘installed’ • Rough seabed – lots of

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 1

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 1 • The more buckles the better • Can control

The more buckles the better

Can control to some extent with lay tolerances

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 1 • The more buckles the better • Can control
Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 1 • The more buckles the better • Can control

SAFEBUCK require you to consider variance in route bends as well as nominally straight pipe

No idea on what you will get until installation Client nervousness over rogue buckles

Justified with e.g. midline Tees, pipeline crossings

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 2

Two paths:

Take your pipe and predict what may occur during ‘worst-case’ installation manoeuvres.

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 2 • Two paths: • Take your pipe and predict
Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 2 • Two paths: • Take your pipe and predict

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 3

OR

Take existing survey data and try to second-guess based on historical trends.

Care must be taken – pipeline should be similar in all ways to existing dataset – bending stiffness / soils / lay details

Dominant aspect of potential feature:

• Radius Change of angle

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 3 • • OR Take existing survey data and try

Natural Buckle Triggers – As-Laid Out-of-Straightness 4

What shape to select:

• Arc / Half sine •

Sine

SAFEBUCK give non- dimensionalised reference lengths for sine curves

155.248 140 N .new 120 100 100 3 3 3 3 4  10 4.5 
155.248
140
N .new
120
100
100
3
3
3
3
4
10
4.5
10
5
10
5.5
10
6
10 3
4000
E
6000
0.5 0.4 pp z 0.2 0  0.10 3 3 3 3 WJstart  4993.9 4.9
0.5
0.4
pp z
0.2
0
 0.10
3
3
3
3
WJstart 
4993.9
4.9
10
4.95
10
5
10
5.05
10
5.1
4900
Cumul
5100

10

Recap

• Buckle terminology.

• Consideration of all potential buckle triggers:

Initiation forces. Post buckle behaviour. • Sense check of FEA results. • Reality check of potential design.