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# Engineering

Thermodynamics

## NITIONS AND FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS OF THERMODYNAMICS

The word thermodynamicsstems from the Greek words therme(heat) and
dynamis(power).
Thermodynamics: The science of energy. It is the science that deals with
various phenomena of energy and the related properties of matter, especially
of the laws of transformation of heat into other forms of energy.

e Concept of a ``System''
A thermodynamicsystemis a quantity of matter of fixed identity, around
which we can draw a boundary.
The quantity of matter or region of space which is chosen for study is
calledsystem. The mass or region which is outside our system is
calledsurrounding. The imaginary or real surface which is used for separating
system from surrounding is called boundaryand the boundary is the only
layer which is shared by both the surrounding and the system.

## A close system is also called as control mass because in it there is no way

from which the mass enters or leave the system. In it only energy which is in
the form of heat or work is added or leaves the system.

## Piston (boundary) and gas (system)

Closed systems exchange energy but not matter with an outside
system.Though they are typically portions of larger systems, they are not in
complete contact. The Earth is essentially a closed system; it obtains lots of
energy from the Sun but the exchange of matter with the outside is almost
zero.

Open System:
It is often called as control volume because it is a selected region over space
from which the quantity of mass enters or leaves the system but the selected
region over space remains same. The examples of control volume systems
are turbines, compressors or nozzles.

Open systems can exchange both matter and energy with an outside
system.They are portions of larger systems and in intimate contact with the
larger system. Your body is an open system.

Isolated System-in which there isno interaction between system and the
surroundings. It is of fixed mass and energy, and hence there is no mass and
energy transfer across the system boundary.

Isolated systems can exchange neither energy nor matter with an outside
system.While they may be portions of larger systems, they do not
communicate with the outside in any way. The physical universe is an
isolated system; a closed thermos bottle is essentially an isolated system
(though its insulation is not perfect).

## roscopic and Microscopic Approaches

Behavior of matter can be studied by these two approaches.
In macroscopic approach, certain quantity of matter is considered, without
a concern on the events occurring at the molecular level. These effects can
be perceived by human senses or measured by instruments. eg: pressure,
temperature
In microscopic approach, the effect ofmolecular motion is considered.
eg: At microscopic level the pressure of a gas is not constant, the
temperature of a gas is a function of the velocity of molecules.
Most microscopic properties cannot be measured with common instruments
nor can be perceived byhuman senses.

e Concept of a ``State''
State: It is the condition of asystem as defined by the values of all its
properties. It gives acomplete description of the system.
Any operation in which one or more properties of a system changeiscalleda
change of state.
Characteristic quality of the entire systems depends not on how the system
change state but only on the final particular state of the substance/system.
Thethermodynamic stateof a system is defined by specifying values of a
set of measurablepropertiessufficient to determine all other properties.
For fluid systems, typical properties are pressure, volume and temperature.
More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual
properties. As an example, the state of an electric battery requires the
specification of the amount of electric charge it contains.

## perties may beextensiveorintensive.

Extensive property: whose value depends on the size or extent of the
system(upper case letters as the symbols). eg: Volume, Mass (V,M).If mass is
increased, the value of extensive property also increases.
Intensive property: whose valueis independent of the sizeor extent
ofthesystem.eg: pressure, temperature (p, T).
Specific property: It is the value of an extensive property per unit mass of
system.(lowercaselettersassymbols)eg:specificvolume, density (, ). It
is a special case of an intensive property.
Most widely referred properties in thermodynamics
Pressure; Volume; Temperature; Entropy; Enthalpy; Internal energy

Phase:
It is a quantity of mass that ishomogeneous throughout in chemical
composition and physical structure. e.g. solid, liquid, vapour, gas.
Phase consisting of more than one phase is known as heterogeneous
system.
Change of Phase:
Solid to Liquid - Melting or Fusion
Liquid to Solid - Solidification or Freezing
Liquid to Gas - Evaporation or Vaporization
Gas to Liquid - Condensation of Liquefaction
Solid to Gas - Sublimation

## ath And Process

Thesuccessionofstatespassedthroughduringachangeofstate is called
the path of the system.
A system is said to go through a process if it goes through a series of
changes in state.

Consequently:
A systemmay undergo changes insome orall ofits properties.
A process can be construed to be the locus of changes of state.

ypes of Processes
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Isothermal
- constant temperature
Isobaric
- constant pressure
Isometric (Isochoric) - constant volume
Isentropic
- constant entropy (PVk = C)
Isenthalpic
- constant enthalpy
Adiabatic
- no heat addition or removal
Polytrophic
- PVn = C

Cycle is a series of processes one after the other such that the initial and
final states are the same.

## roperties and Units

Systems of Units
CGS
MKS (Metric) or SI
FPS (English/Imperial)
The SI unit prefixes are used in all branches of engineering.
Newtons law states that the acceleration of a particular body is directly
proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely proportional to
its mass.
a F/m;
a = kF/m;
k = ma/F
where k is the proportionality constant; k is unity but not dimensionless
CGS : 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gram mass at 1 cm/s2 ; k = 1 gm . cm/dyne
. s2
MKS/SI : 1 Newton force accelerates 1 kg mass at 1 m/s2 ; k = 1 kgm .
m/Newton . s2
English : 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at 1 ft/s2 ; k = 1 slug . ft/lbf . s2

From: F = ma
From:
F
= m. a
MKS/Metric/SI: 1 Newton (N) = 1 kgm . m/s2
CGS:
1 dyne
= 1 gm . m/s2
FPS (English) 1 lbf
= 1 slug . ft/s2
1 slug = 1 lbm . ft/s2 ; 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm . ft/s2
Weight, W = the force of gravity acting on a body.
W = mg;
g gravitational acceleration
g = 9.807 m/s2 (metric/SI)
= 9807 cm/s2 (CGS)
= 32.174 ft/s2 (FPS/English)
Volume, V space occupied by matter. (m3 ; cm3 ; ft3 )
Density, mass per unit volume.
= m/V;
(kg/ m3 ; g/ cm3 ; lb/ ft3 )
Specific volume, volume per unit mass.
= V/m = 1/; (m3/kg; cm3/g; ft3/lb)

## Specific weight: The weight of a unit volume of a substance.

= W/V = mg/(m/) =g
MKS:
CGS:
FPS:

## (kg/ m3) (m/s2) = kg.m/s2. m3 = N/ m3

(g/ cm3) (cm/s2) = g.cm/s2. cm3 = dyne/ m3
(lbm/ ft3) (ft/s2) = lbm .ft/s2. ft3 = (lbm .ft/s2)/ft3 = (1/32.174) lbf /ft3

## Density of Water at Standard Condition

English:62.4 lbm/ ft3
8.33 lbm/ gal
MKS/SI: 1000 kgm/ m3
1 kgm/ li
Specific gravity: The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of
some standard substance at a specified temperature(usually water at 4C)
For Solid and Liquid:

## S.G. = /H2O = / H2O

For Gasses:
S.G. = MW/MWg
MWg = 28.97= 29

Mass Fundamentals
Newtons Physics mass is constant anywhere in the universe.
Law of Conservation of mass states that mass is indestructible, provided that
there is no nuclear process involved.
min = mchange + mout and if m = 0; min = mout
For fluid passing through a given section;
VF = A.V
mF = VF/ = AV/ = AV
where:
VF = volume flow rate, m3/s
A = cross-sectional area of given section, m2
V = velocity (average speed) of fluid, m/s
mF = mass flow rate, kg/s
= specific volume, m3/kg
= density, kg/m3

Examples:
1. Two liquids of different densities ( 1 = 1500 kg/m3 and 2 = 500 kg/m3)
are poured together into a 100 L tank, filling it. If the resulting density of the
mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the respective quantities of liquids used. Also
find the weights of the mixture.
2. Two gaseous streams enter a combining tube and leave as a single
mixture. These data apply at the entrance section.
A1 = 75 in2, V1 = 500 fps, 1 = 10 ft3/lb ; A2 = 50 in2, mF2 = 16.67 lb/s, 2
= 0.12 lb/ft3
At exit: A1 = 75 in2, V3 = 350 fps, 3 = 7 ft3/lb
Find the speed at section 2, the flow rate and area at section 3.
3. A pump discharges into a 3-m-per-side cubical tank. The flow rate is
300 liters/min, and the fluid has a density 1.2 times that of water. Determine
(a) the flow rate in kg/s;
(b) the time it takes to fill the tank.
4. A tank contains a mixture of 20 kg of nitrogen and 20 kg of carbon
monoxide. The total tank volume is 20 m3. Determine the density and
specific volume of the mixture.
5. A cylindrical tank is 50 in. Long, has a diameter of 16 in., and contains
1.65 lb water. Calculate the specific volume and density of water.

Temperature Scales
All temperature scales are based on some easily reproducible states such as
the freezing and boiling points of water: the ice pointand the steam point.
Ice point: A mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with air
saturated with vapor at 1 atm pressure (0C or32F).
Steam point: A mixture of liquid water and water vapor (with no air) in
equilibrium at 1 atm pressure(100C or212F).
Celsius scale: in SI unit system
Fahrenheit scale: in English unit system
Thermodynamic temperature scale: A temperature scale that is
independent of the properties of any substance.
Kelvin scale(SI) Rankine scale(E)
A temperature scale nearly identical to the Kelvin scale is the ideal-gas
temperature scale. The temperatures on this scale are measured using a
constant-volume gas thermometer.
A constant-volume gas thermometer would read -273.15C (0K) at absolute
zero pressure.

The reference temperature in the original Kelvin scale was the ice point,
273.15 K, which is the temperature at which water freezes (or icemelts).
The reference point was changed to a muchmore precisely reproducible
point, the triple pointof water (the state at which all threephases of water
coexist in equilibrium), which is assigned the value 273.16 K.

Conversion

## TEMPERATURE AND THE ZEROTH LAW OFTHERMODYNAMICS

The zeroth lawof thermodynamics: If two bodies are in thermal
equilibrium with a third body, theyare also in thermal equilibrium with each
other.
By replacing the third body witha thermometer, the zeroth law can be
restated as two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both have thesame
temperature reading even if they are not incontact.

Two bodies reaching thermal equilibrium after being brought into contact in
an isolated enclosure.
If two systems (say A and B) are in thermal equilibrium with a third system
(say C) separately(that is A and C are in thermal equilibrium; B and Care in
thermal equilibrium) then they are in thermal equilibrium themselves (that is
A and B will be in thermal equilibrium

PRESSURE:
Pressure(the
symbol:P)
is
theforceper
unitareaapplied
directionperpendicularto the surface of an object.

in

where:
Pis the pressure,
Fis thenormal force,
Ais the area of the surface area on contact
Theabsolute pressure-pabs- is measured relative to theabsolutezero
pressure- the pressure that would occur at absolute vacuum. All calculation
involving the gas laws requires pressure (and temperature) to be in absolute
units.
Absolute pressureis zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is
equal to gauge pressure
plus atmospheric pressure. The actual pressure at
a given position. It is measured
relative to absolute vacuum(i.e.,
absolute zero pressure).
Pabs= pg + patm

## Gauge pressureis the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or

ambient pressure.
- is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to
absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually
omitted. Most pressure- measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in
theatmosphere, and so they indicate gage pressure.
Most gauges read the excess of pressure over atmospheric pressure and
this excess is
called "gauge pressure". While a useful measurement for
many practical purposes, it must be converted to absolute pressure for
applications like theideal gas law.
Since a partial vacuum will be below atmospheric pressure, the phrase
"negative pressure" is often used.
When a system is at atmospheric pressure, the gauge pressure is said to
be zero.
Agaugeis often used to measure the pressure difference between a
system and the surrounding atmosphere. This pressure is often called
thegauge pressureand can be expressed as
pg= ps- patm
where
pg=gauge pressure
ps= system pressure
patm=atmospheric pressure

## Atmospheric pressure is the force from the weight of the atmosphere

above us pushing down
on a unit area.
- In a fluid, which is a liquid or a gas, the pressure increases with the
depth of the fluid because there is a greater weight of fluid pushing down
Theeach
surface
of of
thearea.
earth is at the bottom of an atmospheric sea. The standard atmospheric
on
unit
pressure is measured in various units:
1 atm = 1.01325 bar = 101.3 kPa = 14.696 psi (lbf/in2)= 760 mmHg
=10.33 mH2O = 760
torr = 29.92 inHg = 1013 mbar = 1.0332 kgf/cm2=
33.90 ftH2O
Themercury barometer is the standard instrument for atmospheric pressure
measurement in weather reporting. The decrease in atmospheric pressure
with height can be predicted from thebarometric formula.
The unit mmHg is often called torr, particularly in vacuum applications: 760
mmHg = 760 torr

## Atmospheric pressure is pressure in the surrounding air at - or "close" to - the

surface of the earth. The atmospheric pressure vary with temperature and
altitude above sea level.

## Pascal's principlestates that any pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is

transmitted to every point in the fluid. This principle is the foundation for all
hydraulic devices.

Fluid pressureis the pressure at some point within afluid, such as water or
air.
Fluid pressure occurs in one of two situations:
1. an open condition, called "open channel flow"
a. the ocean, or
b. swimming pool, or
c. the atmosphere.
2. a closed condition, called closed conduits
a. water line, or
b. gas line.
The concepts of fluid pressure are predominantly attributed to the discoveries
ofBlaise PascalandDaniel Bernoulli. Bernoulli's Equation can be used in
almost any situation to determine the pressure at any point in a fluid. The
equation makes some assumptions about the fluid. Such as the fluid being
ideal and incompressible. The equation is written between any two points in a
system that contain the same fluid.
Where:
p = pressure of the fluid
= g= density*acceleration of gravity
v = velocity of the fluid =specific weightof the fluid.
z = elevation
g =acceleration of gravity
= pressure head

= velocity head

## ressure of an ideal gas

Pressure varies linearly with temperature, volume, and quantity according to
theideal gas law,

where:
Pis the absolute pressure of the gas
nis theamount of substance
Tis the absolute temperature
Vis the volume
Ris theideal gas constant.

## Real gasesexhibit a more complex dependence on the variables of

state.
Vapor pressure
Vapor pressure is the pressure of avaporinthermodynamic equilibriumwith
its condensedphasesin a closed system. Allliquidsandsolidshave a
tendency toevaporateinto a gaseous form, and allgaseshave a tendency
tocondenseback to their liquid or solid form.

The main study used for the pressure within a pipe is the application of a
simple device called a manometer. Manometers appear in many shapes and
sizes (simple manometer, differential manometer, U-shape manometer,
barometer, etc.) and serve different purposes (single pipe pressure,
difference in pipe pressures, atmospheric pressure).
The different
manometer devices measure gage pressures; however, through a simple
calculation knowing the atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure of the
desired point of points can be determined:

Pgas>Patm

Gas
pressure
=atmosphe
ric pressure
+h(height
of
the
mercury)

Pgas< Patm
Gas pressure =
atmospheric
pressure
-h(height of the
mercury)

## Closed-tube manometers look similar to regular manometers except that the

end thats open to the atmospheric pressure in a regular manometer is
sealed and contains a vacuum. In these systems, the difference in mercury
levels (in mmHg) is equal to the pressure in torr.
Closed tube

Open Tube

Open Tube

fferential Manometer
The same concepts of fluid statics are used
in
solving
a
differential
manometer;
however, the difference between the two
types is that in a differential manometer the
pressures are not always known. Therefore,
the result will sometimes come out as a
difference in pipe pressure.
The dimension, Rm, is the manometer
reading, which is the height difference
between the two surfaces of the manometer
fluid, M. The dimensions, hA and hB, are the
height
differences
between
the
pipe
fluid/manometer
fluid
interface
and
respective pipe location (A or B).
The
equation for the difference in the pressure of
sBF for
s M W Rm is
s Fas
Wfollows:
hB p B
Wh
A manometer
Ap Aand
this

p A p B s F W h A s M W Rm s F W hB
As in simple manometers, the pressure or pressure difference can be
determined as a gage pressure (or pressure head), or as an absolute pressure
(or pressure head).

Proble
ms

1. A skin diver wants to determine the pressure exerted by the water on her body
after a descent of 35 m to a sunken ship. The specific gravity of sea water is
1.02 times that of pure water. What is the pressure?
2. A hiker is carrying a barometer that measures 101.3 KPa at the base of the
mountain. The barometer reads 85 KPa at the top of the mountain. The
average air density is 1.21 kg/m3. Determine the height of the mountain.
3. A diver descends 100 m to a sunken ship. A container is found with a pressure
gage reading of 100 KPa (gage). Atmospheric pressure is 100 Kpa. What is the
absolute pressure of the gas in the container? (The density of water is 1000
kg/m3).
4. A vertical frictionless piston cylinder contains air at a pressure of 300 KPa with
atmospheric pressure of 100 KPa. The diameter of the piston is 0.25m, and g =
9.8m/s2. Determine the pistons mass.
5. A piston-cylinder contains 2 lbm of water. The initial volume is 0.1 ft3. The
piston rises, causing the volume to double. Determine the final specific volume
of the water.
6. A beer barrel has a mass of 10 kg and a volume of 20 liters. Assuming the
density of beer is 1000 kg/m3, determine the total mass and weight of the
barrel when it is filled with beer.
7. A tank has a vacuum gage attached to it indicating 20 KPa (vacuum) where the
atmospheric pressure is 100 KPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.
8. A pressure cooker operates by cooking food at a higher pressure and
temperature than is possible at atmospheric condition. Steam is contained in
the sealed pot, with a small vent hole in the middle of the cover, allowing

Proble
ms
Determine the pressure of these gasses in mmHg.

Proble
ms
Find the gage and
absolute pressure at point
A of the system.

## Find pressure at B, and

pressure head at B in
length units of water.