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- Thermodynamics
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- Chapter 02
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Thermodynamics

The word thermodynamicsstems from the Greek words therme(heat) and

dynamis(power).

Thermodynamics: The science of energy. It is the science that deals with

various phenomena of energy and the related properties of matter, especially

of the laws of transformation of heat into other forms of energy.

e Concept of a ``System''

A thermodynamicsystemis a quantity of matter of fixed identity, around

which we can draw a boundary.

The quantity of matter or region of space which is chosen for study is

calledsystem. The mass or region which is outside our system is

calledsurrounding. The imaginary or real surface which is used for separating

system from surrounding is called boundaryand the boundary is the only

layer which is shared by both the surrounding and the system.

from which the mass enters or leave the system. In it only energy which is in

the form of heat or work is added or leaves the system.

Closed systems exchange energy but not matter with an outside

system.Though they are typically portions of larger systems, they are not in

complete contact. The Earth is essentially a closed system; it obtains lots of

energy from the Sun but the exchange of matter with the outside is almost

zero.

Open System:

It is often called as control volume because it is a selected region over space

from which the quantity of mass enters or leaves the system but the selected

region over space remains same. The examples of control volume systems

are turbines, compressors or nozzles.

Open systems can exchange both matter and energy with an outside

system.They are portions of larger systems and in intimate contact with the

larger system. Your body is an open system.

Isolated System-in which there isno interaction between system and the

surroundings. It is of fixed mass and energy, and hence there is no mass and

energy transfer across the system boundary.

Isolated systems can exchange neither energy nor matter with an outside

system.While they may be portions of larger systems, they do not

communicate with the outside in any way. The physical universe is an

isolated system; a closed thermos bottle is essentially an isolated system

(though its insulation is not perfect).

Behavior of matter can be studied by these two approaches.

In macroscopic approach, certain quantity of matter is considered, without

a concern on the events occurring at the molecular level. These effects can

be perceived by human senses or measured by instruments. eg: pressure,

temperature

In microscopic approach, the effect ofmolecular motion is considered.

eg: At microscopic level the pressure of a gas is not constant, the

temperature of a gas is a function of the velocity of molecules.

Most microscopic properties cannot be measured with common instruments

nor can be perceived byhuman senses.

e Concept of a ``State''

State: It is the condition of asystem as defined by the values of all its

properties. It gives acomplete description of the system.

Any operation in which one or more properties of a system changeiscalleda

change of state.

Characteristic quality of the entire systems depends not on how the system

change state but only on the final particular state of the substance/system.

Thethermodynamic stateof a system is defined by specifying values of a

set of measurablepropertiessufficient to determine all other properties.

For fluid systems, typical properties are pressure, volume and temperature.

More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual

properties. As an example, the state of an electric battery requires the

specification of the amount of electric charge it contains.

Extensive property: whose value depends on the size or extent of the

system(upper case letters as the symbols). eg: Volume, Mass (V,M).If mass is

increased, the value of extensive property also increases.

Intensive property: whose valueis independent of the sizeor extent

ofthesystem.eg: pressure, temperature (p, T).

Specific property: It is the value of an extensive property per unit mass of

system.(lowercaselettersassymbols)eg:specificvolume, density (, ). It

is a special case of an intensive property.

Most widely referred properties in thermodynamics

Pressure; Volume; Temperature; Entropy; Enthalpy; Internal energy

Phase:

It is a quantity of mass that ishomogeneous throughout in chemical

composition and physical structure. e.g. solid, liquid, vapour, gas.

Phase consisting of more than one phase is known as heterogeneous

system.

Change of Phase:

Solid to Liquid - Melting or Fusion

Liquid to Solid - Solidification or Freezing

Liquid to Gas - Evaporation or Vaporization

Gas to Liquid - Condensation of Liquefaction

Solid to Gas - Sublimation

Thesuccessionofstatespassedthroughduringachangeofstate is called

the path of the system.

A system is said to go through a process if it goes through a series of

changes in state.

Consequently:

A systemmay undergo changes insome orall ofits properties.

A process can be construed to be the locus of changes of state.

ypes of Processes

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Isothermal

- constant temperature

Isobaric

- constant pressure

Isometric (Isochoric) - constant volume

Isentropic

- constant entropy (PVk = C)

Isenthalpic

- constant enthalpy

Adiabatic

- no heat addition or removal

Polytrophic

- PVn = C

Cycle is a series of processes one after the other such that the initial and

final states are the same.

Systems of Units

CGS

MKS (Metric) or SI

FPS (English/Imperial)

The SI unit prefixes are used in all branches of engineering.

Newtons law states that the acceleration of a particular body is directly

proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely proportional to

its mass.

a F/m;

a = kF/m;

k = ma/F

where k is the proportionality constant; k is unity but not dimensionless

CGS : 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gram mass at 1 cm/s2 ; k = 1 gm . cm/dyne

. s2

MKS/SI : 1 Newton force accelerates 1 kg mass at 1 m/s2 ; k = 1 kgm .

m/Newton . s2

English : 1 lb force accelerates 1 slug mass at 1 ft/s2 ; k = 1 slug . ft/lbf . s2

From: F = ma

From:

F

= m. a

MKS/Metric/SI: 1 Newton (N) = 1 kgm . m/s2

CGS:

1 dyne

= 1 gm . m/s2

FPS (English) 1 lbf

= 1 slug . ft/s2

1 slug = 1 lbm . ft/s2 ; 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm . ft/s2

Weight, W = the force of gravity acting on a body.

W = mg;

g gravitational acceleration

g = 9.807 m/s2 (metric/SI)

= 9807 cm/s2 (CGS)

= 32.174 ft/s2 (FPS/English)

Volume, V space occupied by matter. (m3 ; cm3 ; ft3 )

Density, mass per unit volume.

= m/V;

(kg/ m3 ; g/ cm3 ; lb/ ft3 )

Specific volume, volume per unit mass.

= V/m = 1/; (m3/kg; cm3/g; ft3/lb)

= W/V = mg/(m/) =g

MKS:

CGS:

FPS:

(g/ cm3) (cm/s2) = g.cm/s2. cm3 = dyne/ m3

(lbm/ ft3) (ft/s2) = lbm .ft/s2. ft3 = (lbm .ft/s2)/ft3 = (1/32.174) lbf /ft3

English:62.4 lbm/ ft3

8.33 lbm/ gal

MKS/SI: 1000 kgm/ m3

1 kgm/ li

Specific gravity: The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of

some standard substance at a specified temperature(usually water at 4C)

For Solid and Liquid:

For Gasses:

S.G. = MW/MWg

MWg = 28.97= 29

Mass Fundamentals

Newtons Physics mass is constant anywhere in the universe.

Law of Conservation of mass states that mass is indestructible, provided that

there is no nuclear process involved.

min = mchange + mout and if m = 0; min = mout

For fluid passing through a given section;

VF = A.V

mF = VF/ = AV/ = AV

where:

VF = volume flow rate, m3/s

A = cross-sectional area of given section, m2

V = velocity (average speed) of fluid, m/s

mF = mass flow rate, kg/s

= specific volume, m3/kg

= density, kg/m3

Examples:

1. Two liquids of different densities ( 1 = 1500 kg/m3 and 2 = 500 kg/m3)

are poured together into a 100 L tank, filling it. If the resulting density of the

mixture is 800 kg/m3, find the respective quantities of liquids used. Also

find the weights of the mixture.

2. Two gaseous streams enter a combining tube and leave as a single

mixture. These data apply at the entrance section.

A1 = 75 in2, V1 = 500 fps, 1 = 10 ft3/lb ; A2 = 50 in2, mF2 = 16.67 lb/s, 2

= 0.12 lb/ft3

At exit: A1 = 75 in2, V3 = 350 fps, 3 = 7 ft3/lb

Find the speed at section 2, the flow rate and area at section 3.

3. A pump discharges into a 3-m-per-side cubical tank. The flow rate is

300 liters/min, and the fluid has a density 1.2 times that of water. Determine

(a) the flow rate in kg/s;

(b) the time it takes to fill the tank.

4. A tank contains a mixture of 20 kg of nitrogen and 20 kg of carbon

monoxide. The total tank volume is 20 m3. Determine the density and

specific volume of the mixture.

5. A cylindrical tank is 50 in. Long, has a diameter of 16 in., and contains

1.65 lb water. Calculate the specific volume and density of water.

Temperature Scales

All temperature scales are based on some easily reproducible states such as

the freezing and boiling points of water: the ice pointand the steam point.

Ice point: A mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with air

saturated with vapor at 1 atm pressure (0C or32F).

Steam point: A mixture of liquid water and water vapor (with no air) in

equilibrium at 1 atm pressure(100C or212F).

Celsius scale: in SI unit system

Fahrenheit scale: in English unit system

Thermodynamic temperature scale: A temperature scale that is

independent of the properties of any substance.

Kelvin scale(SI) Rankine scale(E)

A temperature scale nearly identical to the Kelvin scale is the ideal-gas

temperature scale. The temperatures on this scale are measured using a

constant-volume gas thermometer.

A constant-volume gas thermometer would read -273.15C (0K) at absolute

zero pressure.

The reference temperature in the original Kelvin scale was the ice point,

273.15 K, which is the temperature at which water freezes (or icemelts).

The reference point was changed to a muchmore precisely reproducible

point, the triple pointof water (the state at which all threephases of water

coexist in equilibrium), which is assigned the value 273.16 K.

Conversion

The zeroth lawof thermodynamics: If two bodies are in thermal

equilibrium with a third body, theyare also in thermal equilibrium with each

other.

By replacing the third body witha thermometer, the zeroth law can be

restated as two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both have thesame

temperature reading even if they are not incontact.

Two bodies reaching thermal equilibrium after being brought into contact in

an isolated enclosure.

If two systems (say A and B) are in thermal equilibrium with a third system

(say C) separately(that is A and C are in thermal equilibrium; B and Care in

thermal equilibrium) then they are in thermal equilibrium themselves (that is

A and B will be in thermal equilibrium

PRESSURE:

Pressure(the

symbol:P)

is

theforceper

unitareaapplied

directionperpendicularto the surface of an object.

in

where:

Pis the pressure,

Fis thenormal force,

Ais the area of the surface area on contact

Theabsolute pressure-pabs- is measured relative to theabsolutezero

pressure- the pressure that would occur at absolute vacuum. All calculation

involving the gas laws requires pressure (and temperature) to be in absolute

units.

Absolute pressureis zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is

equal to gauge pressure

plus atmospheric pressure. The actual pressure at

a given position. It is measured

relative to absolute vacuum(i.e.,

absolute zero pressure).

Pabs= pg + patm

ambient pressure.

- is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to

absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually

omitted. Most pressure- measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in

theatmosphere, and so they indicate gage pressure.

Most gauges read the excess of pressure over atmospheric pressure and

this excess is

called "gauge pressure". While a useful measurement for

many practical purposes, it must be converted to absolute pressure for

applications like theideal gas law.

Since a partial vacuum will be below atmospheric pressure, the phrase

"negative pressure" is often used.

When a system is at atmospheric pressure, the gauge pressure is said to

be zero.

Agaugeis often used to measure the pressure difference between a

system and the surrounding atmosphere. This pressure is often called

thegauge pressureand can be expressed as

pg= ps- patm

where

pg=gauge pressure

ps= system pressure

patm=atmospheric pressure

above us pushing down

on a unit area.

- In a fluid, which is a liquid or a gas, the pressure increases with the

depth of the fluid because there is a greater weight of fluid pushing down

Theeach

surface

of of

thearea.

earth is at the bottom of an atmospheric sea. The standard atmospheric

on

unit

pressure is measured in various units:

1 atm = 1.01325 bar = 101.3 kPa = 14.696 psi (lbf/in2)= 760 mmHg

=10.33 mH2O = 760

torr = 29.92 inHg = 1013 mbar = 1.0332 kgf/cm2=

33.90 ftH2O

Themercury barometer is the standard instrument for atmospheric pressure

measurement in weather reporting. The decrease in atmospheric pressure

with height can be predicted from thebarometric formula.

The unit mmHg is often called torr, particularly in vacuum applications: 760

mmHg = 760 torr

surface of the earth. The atmospheric pressure vary with temperature and

altitude above sea level.

transmitted to every point in the fluid. This principle is the foundation for all

hydraulic devices.

Fluid pressureis the pressure at some point within afluid, such as water or

air.

Fluid pressure occurs in one of two situations:

1. an open condition, called "open channel flow"

a. the ocean, or

b. swimming pool, or

c. the atmosphere.

2. a closed condition, called closed conduits

a. water line, or

b. gas line.

The concepts of fluid pressure are predominantly attributed to the discoveries

ofBlaise PascalandDaniel Bernoulli. Bernoulli's Equation can be used in

almost any situation to determine the pressure at any point in a fluid. The

equation makes some assumptions about the fluid. Such as the fluid being

ideal and incompressible. The equation is written between any two points in a

system that contain the same fluid.

Where:

p = pressure of the fluid

= g= density*acceleration of gravity

v = velocity of the fluid =specific weightof the fluid.

z = elevation

g =acceleration of gravity

= pressure head

= velocity head

Pressure varies linearly with temperature, volume, and quantity according to

theideal gas law,

where:

Pis the absolute pressure of the gas

nis theamount of substance

Tis the absolute temperature

Vis the volume

Ris theideal gas constant.

state.

Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure is the pressure of avaporinthermodynamic equilibriumwith

its condensedphasesin a closed system. Allliquidsandsolidshave a

tendency toevaporateinto a gaseous form, and allgaseshave a tendency

tocondenseback to their liquid or solid form.

The main study used for the pressure within a pipe is the application of a

simple device called a manometer. Manometers appear in many shapes and

sizes (simple manometer, differential manometer, U-shape manometer,

barometer, etc.) and serve different purposes (single pipe pressure,

difference in pipe pressures, atmospheric pressure).

The different

manometer devices measure gage pressures; however, through a simple

calculation knowing the atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure of the

desired point of points can be determined:

Pgas>Patm

Gas

pressure

=atmosphe

ric pressure

+h(height

of

the

mercury)

Pgas< Patm

Gas pressure =

atmospheric

pressure

-h(height of the

mercury)

end thats open to the atmospheric pressure in a regular manometer is

sealed and contains a vacuum. In these systems, the difference in mercury

levels (in mmHg) is equal to the pressure in torr.

Closed tube

Open Tube

Open Tube

fferential Manometer

The same concepts of fluid statics are used

in

solving

a

differential

manometer;

however, the difference between the two

types is that in a differential manometer the

pressures are not always known. Therefore,

the result will sometimes come out as a

difference in pipe pressure.

The dimension, Rm, is the manometer

reading, which is the height difference

between the two surfaces of the manometer

fluid, M. The dimensions, hA and hB, are the

height

differences

between

the

pipe

fluid/manometer

fluid

interface

and

respective pipe location (A or B).

The

equation for the difference in the pressure of

sBF for

s M W Rm is

s Fas

Wfollows:

hB p B

Wh

A manometer

Ap Aand

this

p A p B s F W h A s M W Rm s F W hB

As in simple manometers, the pressure or pressure difference can be

determined as a gage pressure (or pressure head), or as an absolute pressure

(or pressure head).

Proble

ms

1. A skin diver wants to determine the pressure exerted by the water on her body

after a descent of 35 m to a sunken ship. The specific gravity of sea water is

1.02 times that of pure water. What is the pressure?

2. A hiker is carrying a barometer that measures 101.3 KPa at the base of the

mountain. The barometer reads 85 KPa at the top of the mountain. The

average air density is 1.21 kg/m3. Determine the height of the mountain.

3. A diver descends 100 m to a sunken ship. A container is found with a pressure

gage reading of 100 KPa (gage). Atmospheric pressure is 100 Kpa. What is the

absolute pressure of the gas in the container? (The density of water is 1000

kg/m3).

4. A vertical frictionless piston cylinder contains air at a pressure of 300 KPa with

atmospheric pressure of 100 KPa. The diameter of the piston is 0.25m, and g =

9.8m/s2. Determine the pistons mass.

5. A piston-cylinder contains 2 lbm of water. The initial volume is 0.1 ft3. The

piston rises, causing the volume to double. Determine the final specific volume

of the water.

6. A beer barrel has a mass of 10 kg and a volume of 20 liters. Assuming the

density of beer is 1000 kg/m3, determine the total mass and weight of the

barrel when it is filled with beer.

7. A tank has a vacuum gage attached to it indicating 20 KPa (vacuum) where the

atmospheric pressure is 100 KPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the tank.

8. A pressure cooker operates by cooking food at a higher pressure and

temperature than is possible at atmospheric condition. Steam is contained in

the sealed pot, with a small vent hole in the middle of the cover, allowing

Proble

ms

Determine the pressure of these gasses in mmHg.

Proble

ms

Find the gage and

absolute pressure at point

A of the system.

pressure head at B in

length units of water.

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