You are on page 1of 38

WELCOME

to
Clinical Microbiology
Hemant Sabharwal M.D., Ph.D
hsabharwal@jerseycollege.edu

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Chapter 1
Scope of Microbiology

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.


Mosby items and derived items 2010 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Microbiology

Study of microorganisms
Variety of techniques used for

Visualization
Identification
Study of microbial function

Science of microbiology

Originated with invention of the microscope

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Comparison of Cell Sizes

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Microscopy and Its Founding Fathers

Zaccharias and Hans Janssen

Dutch eyeglass makers


In about 1590 produced the first compound
microscope

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

16321723
Native of Holland
Father of microscopy
Observed protozoans and bacteria
Animalcules

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Robert Hooke (16351703)

English scientist
Improved the design and capability of the
compound light microscope
Observed insects, sponges, protozoans, and
more
Micrographia

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Light Microscopes

Use visible light and optical lenses


Either simple or compound

Ocular lens
Objective lens

Final magnification: Multiply the enlarging


power of both the ocular and objective lenses
Example: 10 times 4 = 40

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Light Microscopes

Dissection and stereomicroscopes

Low power: for observing whole objects

Bright-field microscope

Background is lighter than observed specimen


Most specimens require fixing and staining for
bright-field microscopy

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

Bright-field Microscope

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

10

10

Microscopes

Dark-field microscope

Used to view unfixed, unstained specimens


Such as living organisms
Background dark, specimen bright

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

11

11

Dark-field Microscopy

Cheek cells

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

12

12

Microscopes

Phase-contrast microscope

Used to view unfixed, transparent specimens


Effective for observation of cytoplasmic streaming,
motility, and the dynamic states of cell organelles

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

13

13

Phase-contrast Microscopy

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

14

14

Microscopes

Fluorescence microscopes

Ultraviolet illumination
Visualization of specimens that contain naturally
fluorescent substances or that have been stained
with fluorescent stains/dyes
Used in diagnosis of infectious diseases
Used in microbial ecology
Applied to identify specific antibodies in response
to antigens

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

15

15

Fluorescence Microscopy

Pseudomonas

Courtesy Dr. Larry Halverson, Iowa State University.

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

16

16

Microscopes

Confocal microscopes

Sharper images
Allows visualization of different planes of a
specimen
Often by using a laser for illumination
Image can be displayed three-dimensionally with
electronic staining

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

17

17

Electron Microscopes

Transmission (TEM)

Electron beam goes through specimen


Special preparation, sectioning, and staining
Two-dimensional images
Good internal detail
Pictures are referred to as electron micrographs

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

18

18

Electron Micrograph of a Neuron

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

19

19

Electron Microscopes

Scanning (SEM)

No sections
Scans the surface of an object
Three-dimensional image

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

20

20

Scanning Electron Micrograph of


Campylobacter

Courtesy Dr. James Dickinson, Iowa State University.

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

21

21

Spontaneous Generation

Abiogenesis: Life develops from nonliving


matter
Proponents

Opponents

Firmly believed that living things can come from


nonliving matter
Started doubting and developed experiments to
contradict abiogenesis

Louis Pasteur ended the controversy

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

22

22

Spontaneous Generation

Francesco Redi

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

Maggots from fly eggs


Animalcules gave fuel for each side of the
debate

John Needham

Turbidity in boiled broth


Claimed victory for abiogenesis

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

23

23

Spontaneous Generation

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Repeated Needhams experiment without air


access to the flask

Louis Pasteur

The definitive experiment with broth in swannecked flasks

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

24

24

Turbidity and Growth

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

25

25

Germ Theory of Disease

Suspicion that microorganisms cause not


only spoilage and decay but also infectious
disease

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

26

26

Germ Theory of Disease

Oliver Wendell Holmes

Ignaz Semmelweis

Childbirth deaths linked to dirty hands of


physicians
Linked maternity infections to contamination of
hands
Required chlorine solution wash

Joseph Lister

Expanded protocols with aerosol disinfection


Introduced aseptic techniques

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

27

27

Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch
Investigation of anthrax
Convinced of the existence of infectious
microorganisms
Kochs postulates

Edward Jenner
Smallpox
Immunization: start of immunology

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

28

28

Classification of Microorganisms

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

No membrane-bound organelles, such as a


nucleus (pro, before; karyon, nucleus)
Archaea, bacteria
With membrane-bound cell organelles
Algae, fungi, protozoans

Other

Viruses, viroids, prions

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

29

29

Taxonomy

The formal system of organizing, classifying,


and naming living organisms
Domain, kingdom, phylum (division for
bacteria), class, order, family, and genus,
species, strain
Binomial (scientific) nomenclature:
established by Linnaeus

Escherichia coli

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

30

30

Kingdoms of Life

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

31

31

Taxonomy

Each organism has at least two names: the


genus and species
Scientific names are italicized or underlined
The genus is capitalized and the species is in
lower case
After the first use, scientific names may be
abbreviated with the first letter of the genus

E. coli

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

32

32

WoeseFox System:
Three Domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

33

33

Taxonomy

Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology


Baltimore classification of viruses
International Committee on Taxonomy of
Viruses (ICTV)

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

34

34

Microorganisms in Health and


Disease

Microbial ecology

Often deals with biofilms


Interactions
Mutualism
Commensalism
Synergism
Parasitism

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

35

35

Microorganisms in Health and


Disease

Normal flora versus pathogens


Foodborne diseases

Waterborne diseases

Organism/toxin contamination
Organism contamination

Airborne diseases

Aerosols

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

36

36

Applied Microbiology

Food production

Alcoholic beverages

Wine, beer

Treatment of water supplies

Yogurt, bread

Indicator organisms

Pharmaceutical agents

Penicillin

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

37

37

Applied Microbiology

Agriculture

Bioremediation

Petroleum-digesting bacteria

Energy

Soil microbes, nitrogen cycle

Fuel cells, ethanol, methane

Forensics

Medicine, criminal justice, epidemiology,


bioterrorism

Copyright 2014, 2011, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.

38

38