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Istanbul

Martine, Magnus, Simen & Torkel

Geographical Zone
Transcontinental
Bosphorus Strait
Latitude: 41o01 N
Moderately strong
seasonal variation
Elevation 128 ft

Noon sun angle, daylength,


solar radiation
Always less than 90o
Summer Solstice
Winter Solstice
Daylength average: 12.7 h
Annual solar radiation
input: 15 Mj/m2

Maritime / Continental
Climate
Sub-climates
Kppen-Geiger Classification
Mediterranean climate (Csa)
Humid subtropical climate
(Cfa)
Oceanic climate (Cfb)

Exhibits microclimates
Northern part
Southern part

Cloud Cover
Frequent cloud cover throughout the year, but
has a slight seasonal variation
Summer months are often mostly clear
Winter months are often mostly clouded
J
Mean
Cloud
Cover
(x/8)

YR

6.5 6.0 5.2 4.0 2.8 1.6 1.4 1.8 3.1 4.1 5.8 6.6 4.0

Forms of Precipitation
Annual average of precipitation - 120 days
Annual average of 28 days of snow as the form
of precipitation
Snow as the prominent form of precipitation in
winter months December through February
Istanbul has a generally mild climate the rest of
the year

Source of Precipitation
Main source - Midlatitude Cyclones
Continental tropical air mass from North Africa
Strong seasonal change
Heavy precipitation during winter months, with
a dry summer season

Biome
Located between several biomes
Grasslands/shrub-land and temperate dry forest
biome
Decreased open land and forest area
Increased urbanisation

Trade Winds

Temprature
Mo J
nth

12 16 22 24 24 21 16

12

43 42 46 54 61 71 74 74 69 60

53

46

Maritime/ continental climate


Meduim seasonal change
Temprature range from 6C-24C average.
Seasonal change

Human Disturbance to Land


High disturbance to Land around the city.
14,2 million inhabitants
Old city (330 AD)
Deleoped early on and heavely used as trade
routs.

Weathering
Generally little weathering, but chemical
weathering is most prominent.
Lack of mechanical due to few days with
temorature under 0C.
Little chemical due to dry summers compared
to winters with an average of less than 0,6
inches of percipitation.
Most of the weathering happens due to
Istanbuls limestone.

Rubble in Waiting

Buildings not able to withstand


earthquake

Earthquake hazard collide with


socioeconomic vulnerabilities

Buildings lack organization

Population over 10 million

Earthquakes with tendency to


strike vulnerable areas.

The Seismic
Threats

Heightened seismic threat

Magnitude of 7 on Ricther Scale

60-70% in a 30-year period

Marmara Region

90,000 lost lives in 76 earthquakes

North Anatolian Fault. 1939 & 1999

Turkey in the top 20%

Earthquakes Nr. 1
Natural Hazard

Dr. Mustafa Erdik Maps Out a


Situation

Potential 30,000-40,000
Deaths

Injure a Minimum of 120,000

Building Flaws

Illegal Construction

Urban Metropolis

Conclusion

Sources
"Time Zone Map." Time Zone Map. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.timeanddate.com/time/map/#!cities=107>.
"Climate of Istanbul." Climate of Istanbul. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr.
2015. <http://nationalparksofturkey.com/climate-of-istanbul/>.
"Istanbul, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)."
Weatherbase. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. <http://
www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?
s=6071&cityname=Istanbul%2C%2BTurkey&units=>.
Erdik, Mustafa. "Earthquake Risk in Turkey." Science Magazine
341.6147
(2013): 724-25. Print.
"Recent Natural Disasters in Turkey: An Overview of the National
Technological Capacity and Its Utilization." ReliefWeb. UN Resident
Coordinator, 5 July 2000. Web. 02 May 2015