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ASAS MENGENAL

NOMBOR
PKP3183
PISMP
2015

SISTEM PERNOMBORAN
PURBA
SISTEM
SISTEM
SISTEM
SISTEM

MESIR
BABYLON
MAYAN
ROMAN

SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR?


Angka Mesir purba ialah sejenis

sistem angka yang telah digunakan di


Mesir purba sehingga awal alaf pertama
masihi.
satu sistem angka perpuluhan (asas 10),
sering dibundarkan kepada nilai yang lebih
tinggi,
ditulis dalam huruf Hieroglif
tidak mempunyai nombor sifar

SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR


Setiap urutan magnitud (sa, puluh, ratus, ribu

dan seterusnya) memiliki tanda khusus.


Simbol Hieroglif diguna ada seperti dlm
lampiran 1

Lampiran 1

SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR

SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR


Gandaan nilai-nilai boleh diungkapkan dengan

mengulang simbol-simbol berdasarkan nilai


yang dikehendaki.
Contohnya, satu ukiran batu dari Karnak
menunjukkan nombor 4622 seperti berikut.
cth no mesir 4622.docx

SISTEM BABYLON
Babylonian numeration system developed

between 3000 and 2000 BCE.


uses only two numerals or symbols, one and
ten to represent numbers as follows:

SISTEM BABYLON
Example:

two ones are shown on the right showed that

Babylonians system used place value in their


system.

Example of babylonian
number
45 is written as shown:

For numbers up to 59, the system was simply

an additive system.

SISTEM BABYLON
For number bigger than 59, the babylonian

used a place value system with a base of 60


62 is written as shown:

We can see the use of a big space to separate

the place value.

SISTEM BABYLON
62 =

Example:
4871 could be represented as follow:

3600 + 1260 + 11 = 4871

Exercises:
Write the following numbers using Babylonian
numeration system:
1. 37
2. 74
3. 3614

SISTEM MAYAN
Mayan numeration system evolved around

A.D. 300.
It used vertical place-value system
It introduced a symbol for zero

SISTEM MAYAN
It uses 3 basic numerals to represent any

possible number: a dot for one, a horizontal


bar for 5, and a conch shell for zero as follows:

Example:
3 symbols above have been used to represent

the numbers from 0 through 19 as shown


below:

SISTEM MAYAN
For number bigger than 19 is written in a

vertical position so that it becomes a vertical


place value system.
Mayan numeration system was base 20 and
their place values were 1, 20,18x20,
18x202, ...

SISTEM MAYAN
Using the base 20, 1, 20, 202,203
1. 20 = 1x20 + 0

2. 100 = 5 x 20 + 0

SISTEM MAYAN
201
1. 2007 =5 x18x

+ 2 x 20 + 7 x 1

Exercises
What is the value of this Mayan number?

Answer

The number is: 14 + 7 20 + 1 202 + 3 20

+ 5 20

= 368024554

+ 0 20

+ 15 20

SISTEM ROMAN
Sistem Roman numeration system evolved

around 500 BCE.


it uses special symbols to represent numbers,
the basic Roman numerals used are as follow:

SISTEM ROMAN
All Roman numerals are found by combining

these basic numerals using grouping, additivity,


subtractive principle and multiplicative
principle.
Examples:
1) 154 =CLIIII in Roman numerals
2) 1492 =??????? in Roman numerals
3) 3495 =??????? in Roman numerals

Subtractive Principle
4)
5)
6)
7)

4 = ??????? in Roman numerals


9 = ??????? in Roman numerals
40 = ????? in Roman numerals
90 = ???????? in Roman numerals

*remember to group the pair of increased symbols together, the values


of the symbols in any pair increase.
The value of the new pair is:
bigger number in the pair smaller number in the pair
what is the numerical value of MCMXLIV?
The subtractive principle will make the writing a lot simpler such as:

1) CLIIII = CLIV

Positional system
Roman system is a positional system, as

the position of a numeral can affect the value


of the number.
Eg: IV = ?????
VI = ????

Multiplicative principle
In Roman numeration system, horizontal bar

numeral represent 1000 times the number,


Eg.XI
=11000 - 11 times of 1000.

V = 5000 5 times of 1000


or

SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB


is a positional decimal numeral system

developed between the 1st and 4th centuries


by Indian mathematicians
was adopted by Persian Muslim
mathematician (Al-Khwarizmi's c. 825 book On
the Calculation with Hindu Numerals) and
Arab mathematicians (Al-Kindi's c. 830
volumes On the Use of the Indian Numerals)
by the 9th century. It later spread to the
western world by the High Middle Ages.

SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB


name given to our number system
Uses these numerals: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB


Numbers fr 0, 1, .12 have unique

names
13, 14, 19 are teens
20, 21, .., 99 are combination of
their earlier names
Hindu Arabic system is based on 10,