You are on page 1of 30

# ASAS MENGENAL

NOMBOR
PKP3183
PISMP
2015

SISTEM PERNOMBORAN
PURBA
SISTEM
SISTEM
SISTEM
SISTEM

MESIR
BABYLON
MAYAN
ROMAN

## SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR?

Angka Mesir purba ialah sejenis

## sistem angka yang telah digunakan di

Mesir purba sehingga awal alaf pertama
masihi.
satu sistem angka perpuluhan (asas 10),
sering dibundarkan kepada nilai yang lebih
tinggi,
ditulis dalam huruf Hieroglif
tidak mempunyai nombor sifar

## SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR

Setiap urutan magnitud (sa, puluh, ratus, ribu

## dan seterusnya) memiliki tanda khusus.

Simbol Hieroglif diguna ada seperti dlm
lampiran 1

Lampiran 1

## SISTEM NOMBOR MESIR

Gandaan nilai-nilai boleh diungkapkan dengan

## mengulang simbol-simbol berdasarkan nilai

yang dikehendaki.
Contohnya, satu ukiran batu dari Karnak
cth no mesir 4622.docx

SISTEM BABYLON
Babylonian numeration system developed

## between 3000 and 2000 BCE.

uses only two numerals or symbols, one and
ten to represent numbers as follows:

SISTEM BABYLON
Example:

## Babylonians system used place value in their

system.

Example of babylonian
number
45 is written as shown:

## For numbers up to 59, the system was simply

SISTEM BABYLON
For number bigger than 59, the babylonian

## used a place value system with a base of 60

62 is written as shown:

## the place value.

SISTEM BABYLON
62 =

Example:
4871 could be represented as follow:

## 3600 + 1260 + 11 = 4871

Exercises:
Write the following numbers using Babylonian
numeration system:
1. 37
2. 74
3. 3614

SISTEM MAYAN
Mayan numeration system evolved around

A.D. 300.
It used vertical place-value system
It introduced a symbol for zero

SISTEM MAYAN
It uses 3 basic numerals to represent any

## possible number: a dot for one, a horizontal

bar for 5, and a conch shell for zero as follows:

Example:
3 symbols above have been used to represent

## the numbers from 0 through 19 as shown

below:

SISTEM MAYAN
For number bigger than 19 is written in a

## vertical position so that it becomes a vertical

place value system.
Mayan numeration system was base 20 and
their place values were 1, 20,18x20,
18x202, ...

SISTEM MAYAN
Using the base 20, 1, 20, 202,203
1. 20 = 1x20 + 0

2. 100 = 5 x 20 + 0

SISTEM MAYAN
201
1. 2007 =5 x18x

+ 2 x 20 + 7 x 1

Exercises
What is the value of this Mayan number?

## The number is: 14 + 7 20 + 1 202 + 3 20

+ 5 20

= 368024554

+ 0 20

+ 15 20

SISTEM ROMAN
Sistem Roman numeration system evolved

## around 500 BCE.

it uses special symbols to represent numbers,
the basic Roman numerals used are as follow:

SISTEM ROMAN
All Roman numerals are found by combining

## these basic numerals using grouping, additivity,

subtractive principle and multiplicative
principle.
Examples:
1) 154 =CLIIII in Roman numerals
2) 1492 =??????? in Roman numerals
3) 3495 =??????? in Roman numerals

Subtractive Principle
4)
5)
6)
7)

## 4 = ??????? in Roman numerals

9 = ??????? in Roman numerals
40 = ????? in Roman numerals
90 = ???????? in Roman numerals

## *remember to group the pair of increased symbols together, the values

of the symbols in any pair increase.
The value of the new pair is:
bigger number in the pair smaller number in the pair
what is the numerical value of MCMXLIV?
The subtractive principle will make the writing a lot simpler such as:

1) CLIIII = CLIV

Positional system
Roman system is a positional system, as

## the position of a numeral can affect the value

of the number.
Eg: IV = ?????
VI = ????

Multiplicative principle
In Roman numeration system, horizontal bar

## numeral represent 1000 times the number,

Eg.XI
=11000 - 11 times of 1000.

or

## SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB

is a positional decimal numeral system

## developed between the 1st and 4th centuries

by Indian mathematicians
mathematician (Al-Khwarizmi's c. 825 book On
the Calculation with Hindu Numerals) and
Arab mathematicians (Al-Kindi's c. 830
volumes On the Use of the Indian Numerals)
by the 9th century. It later spread to the
western world by the High Middle Ages.

## SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB

name given to our number system
Uses these numerals: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

## SISTEM PERANGKAAN HINDU ARAB

Numbers fr 0, 1, .12 have unique

names
13, 14, 19 are teens
20, 21, .., 99 are combination of
their earlier names
Hindu Arabic system is based on 10,