Manajemen Mutu

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Manajemen Mutu

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 49

Variation

Part Tolerance

Process Variation

Taguchi Quality Loss Function

Random Variables and how

variation grows with size and

complexity

Quality Control

2.810

T.Gutowski

References;

Kalpakjian pp 982-991 (Control Charts)

Robust Quality by Genichi Taguchi and

Don Clausing

Experiments

Taken from Quality Engineering using Robust

Design by Madhav S. Phadke, Prentice Hall, 1989

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T.Gutowski

Interchangeable Parts;

Go, No-Go; Part Tolerance

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T.Gutowski

and lower limits, for example the

dimensional tolerance +0.005 in.

Lower

Specificatio

n Limit

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Target

T.Gutowski

Upper

Specificatio

n Limit

Process Variation

Process measurement reveals a distribution in

output values.

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1

10

11

12

Discrete probability

distribution based

upon measurements

13

Continuous Normal

distribution

factors,

the distribution will tend toward a normal distribution.

(Central Limit Theorem)

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5

given on the part drawing,

and variation is the

variability in the

manufacturing process. This

figure confuses the two by

showing the process

capabilities in terms of

tolerance. Never the less, we

can see that the general

variability (expressed as

tolerance over part

dimension) one gets from

10

2

conventional

manufacturing

10

processes

1,000 is on the order of

.01

4

10

to

100

that have requirements that exceed these capabilities? If so then

what? 2.810

T.Gutowski

6

capability by measuring the process variability

and comparing it directly to the required

tolerance. Common measures are called Process

Capability Indices (PCIs), such as,

USL LSL

Cp

6

C pk

min(USL , LSL)

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T.Gutowski

specification parts are 4.2% + 0.4% =

4.6%

What are the PCIs?

Lower

Specificatio

n Limit

2.810

Target

T.Gutowski

Upper

Specificatio

n Limit

and the target do not have to line up.

What are the PCIs? How many parts are

out of spec?

Lower

Specificatio

n Limit

2.810

Target

T.Gutowski

Upper

Specificatio

n Limit

Comparison

Case 1

Cp = = 2/3

Case 2

Cp = = 2/3

Cpk =

Min()=2/

3

Cpk =

Min()=1/3

Out of Spec = 16.1%

Out

of Spec = 4.6%

Note; the out of Spec percentages are off slightly due to round off

errors

2.810

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10

distributions at Sony?

20% Likelihood set

will be returned

2.810

T.Gutowski

11

Quality

Loss

QL = k 2

Goal Post

Quality

Deviation,

f (0) 2

QL( ) f (0) f (0)

2!

2.810

T.Gutowski

12

Homework Problem

Estimate a reasonable factory

tolerance if the Quality Loss ($) for

a failure in the field is 100 times

the cost of fixing a failure in the

factory. Say the observed field

tolerance level that leads to failure

is field.

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13

variation grows with size and

complexity

Random variable basics

Tolerance stack up

Product complexity

Mfg System complexity

2.810

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14

IfthedimensionXisarandomvariable,themeanisgivenby

=E(X)

(1)

andthevariationisgivenby

Var(x)=E[(x)2]

(2)

bothofthesecanbeobtainedfromtheprobabilitydensityfunction

p(x).

Foradiscretepdf,theexpectationoperationis:

E( X) xi p( xi )

i

2.810

(3)

T.Gutowski

15

PropertiesoftheExpectation

1.IfY=aX+b;a,bareconstants,

E(Y)=aE(X)+b

(4)

2.IfX1,Xnarerandomvariables,

E(X1++Xn)=E(X1)++E(Xn)

2.810

T.Gutowski

(5)

16

PropertiesoftheVariance

1.

Foraandbconstants

Var(aX+b)=a2Var(X)

2.

(6)

IfX1,..Xnareindependentrandomvariables

Var(X1++Xn)=Var(X1)+Var(X2)++Var(Xn) (7)

2.810

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17

IfX1andX2arerandomvariablesandnotnecessarily

independent,then

Var(X1+X2)=Var(X1)+Var(X2)+2Cov(X1Y) (8)

thiscanbewrittenusingthestandarddeviation,andthe

correlationas

2

L

2

1

2

2

21 2

(9)

whereL=X1+X2

2.810

T.Gutowski

18

IfX1andX2arecorrelated(=1),then

L2 12 22 21 2 ( 1 2 )2

(14)

forX1=X2=X0

4

2

L

2

0

(15)

forN

2

L

2

0

(16)

or

L N 0

(17)

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19

Now,ifX1andX2areuncorrelated(=0)wegettheresultasin

eqn(7)or,

2

L

2

1

2

2

(10)

2

L

andforN

IfX1=X=Xo

2

L

i 1

2

i

2

N 0

L N 0

Or

2.810

T.Gutowski

(11)

(12)

(13)

20

As the number of variables grow so

does the variation in the system;

L N 0

L N 0

This leads to; more complicated

systems may be more likely to fail

2.810

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21

dimension and variation of a stack of

n blocks.

1, 2

n

If USL LSL = , and Cp = 1

a) How many parts are out of compliance?

b) Now USL-LSL=, what is Cp? How

many parts are out of spec?

c) Repeat a) with

Assume that target.

2.810

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22

shows that when composites are

cured by autoclave processing on one

sided tools the variation in thickness

measurements of the prepreg

thickness it is determined

that their

tell about the source of variation?

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23

ref. Augustines Laws

2.810

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24

Data from D. Cochran

2.810

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25

Quality ControlDisturbances, d;

Inputs

I;

Matl,

Energy,

Info

2.810

temperature, humidity,

vibrations, dust, sunlight

Machine

M

Outputs

, X

settings, feedback, action?

T.Gutowski

26

X = f (M, I, u, d)

Equipme

nt

Purchase

Q.C.,

Utilities,

etc

2.810

Physical

Plant, etc

Operator, Real

Time Control

So who is in charge

of quality?

T.Gutowski

27

a quality problem?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Detection

Measurement

Source Identification

Action

Goal should be prevention

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28

Detection

Make problems obvious

Clear flow paths and responsibility

Andon board

Simplify the system

Stop line

Direct attention to problem

Involve Team

2.810

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29

Measurement

Statistical Process Control

Average value x

Upper Control

Limit

Centerline

Lower Control

Limit

Sampling period

2.810

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30

Issues

Sampling Period

Establish Limits

Sensitivity to Change

2.810

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31

Source Identification;

Ishikawa Cause and Effect

Man

Machine

Diagram

Effect

Material

Method

difficult part of quality control. There are only aids to

help you with this problem solving exercise like the

Ishikawa Diagrams which helps you cover all

categories, and the 5 Whys which helps you go to

the root cause.

2.810

T.Gutowski

32

Truck front

suspension

2.810

assembly

T.Gutowski

33

parameters

Tables and Handbooks

Models

Designed Experiments

2.810

T.Gutowski

34

Designed Experiments

1.

2.

3.

4.

Temp T (3 settings)

Pressure P (3 settings)

Time t (3 values)

Cleaning Methods K (3 types)

How Many Experiments?

One at a time gives 34 = 81

2.810

T.Gutowski

35

factors at once?

Our strategy would be to measure

one of the factors, say

temperature, while randomizing

the other factors. For example

measure T2 with all combinations

of the other factors e.g. (P,t,K) =

(123), (231), (312).

2.810

T.Gutowski

36

Exp

temp

pressur time

e

clean

1

1

1 are

levels.1Only1 9 experiments

2

1

2

2

2

needed

3

4

5

6

7

8

2.810

9

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

2

3

2

3

1

3

1

2

1

3

2

2

1

3

3 T.Gutowski

2

1

37

Homework

Can you design an orthogonal array

for 3 factors at 2 levels?

2.810

T.Gutowski

38

to reduce variation

Simplify design

Simplify the manufacturing system

Plan on variation and put in place a

system to address it

2.810

T.Gutowski

39

Fan case

LPC

LPT

HPC

HPT

diffuser

gearbox

2.810

T.Gutowski

exhaust

case

40

Engine Data

Engine

complexit

y

engine

A1

engine

A2

engine

B1

engine

B2

engine

C1

engine

C2

number of

part numbers

~2,000

~2,000

~1,40

0

~1,30

0

4,465

3,485

total number

of parts

~15,00

0

~19,00

0

~7,00

0

~7,00

0

26,073

23,580

weight [lb]

2.3k3.5k

9k-10k

1.5k1.6k

1.5k1.6k

2.3k3.5k

1.5k1.6k

thrust [lb]

unless

otherwise

noted

by-pass ratio

14k21k

40k50k

4k-5k

hp

7k-9k

14k21k

7k-9k

0.36:1

4.9:1

5.15:1

0.34:1

6.2:1

engine

A1

engine

A2

engine

B1

engine

B2

engine

C1

engine

C2

150

150

110

150

150

286

15

20

10

23

21

7.30

7.30

6.64

4.87

4.87

2.55

annual

production

planned

throughput time

[days]

approx. takt

time

[shifts/engine]

2.810

T.Gutowski

41

count

25

C1

20

A2

y = 0.001x + 3.995

C2

days

Scheduled build

times

R = 0.968

15

A1

B2

10

B1

5

0

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

30,000

2.810

T.Gutowski

42

Times

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

engines

2.810

T.Gutowski

43

scheduled times

140

planned throughput time

120

shortest actual throughput time

100

days

80

60

40

20

B2

A1

B1

A2

C2

C1

0

0

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

30,000

2.810

T.Gutowski

44

50%

47%

45%

percentage of occurrence

40%

38%

35%

30%

25%

20%

13%

15%

10%

5%

2%

0%

People shortage

2.810

Quality Issues

Part S hortages

T.Gutowski

unknown

45

(Guesses)

tools not available station not available

1%

4%

Quality problem

9%

build awaiting

inspec tion

7%

people shortage

9%

3%

2.810

part shortages

67%

T.Gutowski

46

(data)

80%

percentage of occurrence

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

unknown

2.810

rework

paperwork

T.Gutowski

Quality

47

period at aircraft engine factory

B

engines shipped per week

12

month 2

month 1

month 3

10

0

7-Jun

15-Jun

23-Jun

30-Jun

7-Jul

15-Jul

24-Jul

31-Jul

7-Aug

15-Aug

24-Aug

31-Aug

Weeks

2.810

T.Gutowski

48

period at aircraft engine factory

C

7

engines shipped

0

may

2.810

june

weeks

july

T.Gutowski

august

49

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