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Phillip

Kevin Lane

Kotler Keller
Marketing Management

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Conducting Marketing Research and

Discussion Questions
1. What constitutes good
marketing research?
2. What are the best metrics
for measuring marketing
productivity?
3. How can marketers access
their return on investment
of marketing expenditures?
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Marketing Research

The systematic design,


collection, analysis, and
reporting of data and findings
relevant to a specific marketing
situation facing the company.

Marketing Research System


Market Research

Insight

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Creative Research Means


Check out rivals

Internet sources

Rival
s

Marketing
partners
Student projects
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Marketing Research
Process

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Step 1: Defne the


Problem
Identify the problem
Specify decision alternatives
State research objectives
Focused inquiry

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Step 2: Develop the


Research Plan
Research

Data Sources
Secondary
data
Primary data

Approaches
Observation
Focus groups
Surveys
Behavioral data
Experiments

Sampling
plan
Contact
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Research instrument
Questionnaires
Qualitative
measures
Technological
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Research Approaches
Observation
Observation

Focus
Focus Group
Group

Survey
Survey

Experimentation
Experimentation
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Focus Group in Session

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Research Instruments
Questionnaires
Interview Guides

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Questionnaire
A set of structured and semistructured questions aimed at
collecting data relevant to a problem

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Question Types Dichotomous


In arranging this trip, did you contact
American Airlines?
Yes No

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Multichotomous
Q: Which Airline, out of the
following, would be your frst choice
for international travel:
a. Lufthansa
b. Emirates
c. American Air
d. British Airways
e. Any other, pl. specify: ______

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With whom are you traveling on this trip?


No one
Spouse
Spouse and children
Children only
Business associates/friends/relatives
An organized tour group
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Which factors influence your choice for an Airline?


(Check all that apply)
Fares
Safety
In-flight service
Stopovers
Flight schedules
Others: _____________

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Question Types Likert Scale


Indicate your level of agreement with the
following statement: Small airlines
generally give better service than large
ones.
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Neither agree nor disagree
Agree
Strongly agree
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Question Types Semantic Differential


American Airlines
Large 1 2 3 4 5 6 7..Small
Experienced 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Inexperienced
Modern 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ..Oldfashioned

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Question Types Importance Scale

Airline food service is _____ to me.


Extremely important
Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
Not at all important

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Question Types Rating


Scale
American Airlines food service is _____.
Excellent
Very good
Good
Fair
Poor

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Question Types
Intention to Buy Scale
How likely are you to purchase tickets on
American Airlines if in-flight Internet
access were available?
Defnitely buy
Probably buy
Not sure
Probably not buy
Defnitely not buy
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Question TypesCompletely
Unstructured
What is your opinion of American Airlines?

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Question Types
Sentence Completion
When I choose an airline, the most
important consideration in my decision is:
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________________________.

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Question Types
Story Completion
I flew American a few days ago. I noticed
that the exterior and interior of the plane
had very bright colors. This aroused in me
the following thoughts and feelings. Now
complete the story.
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
______________
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Step 3: Collect the


Information
Online surveys

Telephone surveys

Interviews
In-home surveys
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Step 4: Analyze the


Information

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Step 5: Present the Findings

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Step 6: Make the Decision


Researc
h

Decisio
ns

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Qualitative Measures
Word
Word Association
Association
Projective
Projective Techniques
Techniques
Visualization
Visualization
Brand
Brand Personifcation
Personifcation

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Question Types
Word Association
What is the frst word that comes to your
mind when you hear the following?
Airline ________________________
American _____________________
Travel ________________________

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PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE

Any personality test designed to give


away information about someone's
personality on the basis of their
unrestricted response to ambiguous
objects or situations

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PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE

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Brand Personifcation
Ask subjects what kind of person they think of
when the brand is mentioned: "If the brand were
to come alive as a person, what would it be like,
what would it do, where would it live, what would
it wear, who would it talk to if it went to

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Brand Personifcation

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Sampling Plan
Sample: A relative small percentage of the target
population
Target Population: The entire number of units
relevant to a problem
Sampling unit: Who is to be surveyed?
Sample size: How many people should be
surveyed?
Sampling procedure: How should the respondents
be chosen? For example: Probability or nonprobability

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Contact Methods
Mail Questionnaire
Telephone
Interview
Personal
Interview
Online
Interview
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Pros and Cons of Online Research

Advantages
Inexpensive
Fast
Accuracy of data,
even for sensitive
questions
Versatility of
sampling units

Disadvantages
Small samples
Skewed samples
Technological
problems
Inconsistencies

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What is a
Marketing Decision Support System
(MDSS)?
A marketing decision support
system is a coordinated collection
of data, systems, tools, and
techniques with supporting
hardware and software by which
an organization gathers and
interprets relevant information
from business and environment
and turns it into a basis for
action.
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Barriers Limiting the Use of


Marketing Research
A narrow conception of the
research
Uneven caliber of researchers
Poor framing of the problem
Late and occasionally invalid
fndings
Personality and presentational
differences
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Table 4.3 Characteristics of


Good Marketing Research

Scientific method

Research creativity
Multiple methods
Interdependence
Value and cost of information

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What are Marketing Metrics?


Marketing metrics are the set of
measures that helps marketers
quantify, compare, and interpret
marketing performance.

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Table 4.4 Marketing Metrics


External

Internal

Awareness of goals
Commitment to
goals
Active support
Resource adequacy
Staffing levels
Desire to learn
Willingness to
change
Freedom to fail
Autonomy

Awareness
Market share
Relative price
Number of
complaints
Customer
satisfaction
Distribution
Total number of
customers
Loyalty

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What is Marketing-Mix
Modeling?
Marketing-mix models analyze
data from a variety of sources, such
as retailer scanner data, company
shipment data, pricing, media, and
promotion spending data, to
understand more precisely the
effects of specifc marketing
activities.
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Table 4.5 Sample Customer-Performance


Scorecard Measures

% of new customers to average #


% of lost customers to average #
% of win-back customers to average #
% of customers in various levels of
satisfaction
% of customers who would repurchase
% of target market members with brand
recall
% of customers who say brand is most
preferred
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The Measures of Market Demand

Potential
Market

Available
Market

Target
Market

Penetrated
Market

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Potential market is the set of consumers


who recognize a sufficient level of interest in a
market offer. However, consumer interest is
not enough to defne a market for marketers
unless they also have sufficient income and
access to the product.
Available market is the set of consumers
who have interest, income, and access to a
particular offer
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Target market is the part of the


qualifed available market the
company decides to pursue.
Penetrated market is the set of
consumers who are buying the
company's product.

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Estimating Future Demand

Survey of Buyers Intentions


Composite of Sales Force Opinions
Expert Opinion
Past-Sales Analysis
Market-Test Method

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Marketing Debate
What is the best type of marketing
research?

ake a position:
Marketing research should be quantitative.

r
Marketing research should be qualitative.
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Marketing Discussion

When was the last time you


participated in a survey?
How helpful do you think the
information you provided was?
Could the research have been done
differently?

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