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LOS MICROWAVE

COMMUNICATION
Presented by
Arjun KR(CYS14003)

MICROWAVES
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with

wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as


short as one millimetre; with frequencies between 300
MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz

MICROWAVE USES:
Microwave uses
o Communication
o Navigation
o Radar
o satellite
o Microwave ovens

LINE OF SIGHT
What does Line of Sight (LoS) mean?
Examples:
FM radio, microwave and satellite transmission are
examples of line-of-sight communication.

Optical LOS & Radio LOS


Optical LOS:
Optical LOS(visual LOS) considers only optical visibility.

Optical LOS & Radio LOS


Radio LOS:
Radio LoS considers the concept of Fresnel's ellipsoids
and their clearance criteria.

LOS Impairments
Attenuation - Strength of signal falls off with distance
Free space loss
Noise
Atmospheric absorption
Multipath
Thermal noise

Attenuation
Strength of signal falls off with distance over transmission

medium
Attenuation factors for unguided media:
Received signal must have sufficient strength so that circuitry in the

receiver can interpret the signal


Signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher than noise to be received
without error

Free Space Loss


Free space loss, isotropic antenna

Pt 4d
4fd

2
2
Pr

c
2

Pt = signal power at transmitting antenna


Pr = signal power at receiving antenna

= carrier wavelength
d = propagation distance between antennas
c = speed of light
where d and are in the same units (e.g., meters)

Thermal Noise
Thermal noise due to agitation of electrons
Present in all electronic devices and transmission media
Cannot be eliminated
Function of temperature
Particularly significant for satellite communication

Thermal Noise
Amount of thermal noise to be found in a bandwidth of 1Hz in

any device or conductor is:

N 0 kT W/Hz

N0 = noise power density in watts per 1 Hz of bandwidth


k = Boltzmann's constant = 1.3803 * 10-23 J/K
T = temperature, in kelvins (absolute temperature)

Impairments due to Atmospheric condition


Due to weather the microwave communication are

affected.
Raindrops and hailstones are similar in size to the
wavelength of higher-frequency microwaves. A rainstorm
can block microwave communication, producing a
condition called rain fade. To locate incoming storms,
weather radar deliberately uses shorter-wavelength
microwaves to increase interaction with rain.

Diversity Techniques-Error correction


Diversity is based on the fact that individual channels

experience independent fading events


Space diversity techniques involving physical transmission
path
Frequency diversity techniques where the signal is spread out
over a larger frequency bandwidth or carried on multiple
frequency carriers
Time diversity techniques aimed at spreading the data out
over time

THANK YOU