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CCB/CBB 3033

ADVANCED TRANSPORT
PROCESSES /
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
5. Mass Transport
Lesson 26: Diffusion through a Spherical
Stagnant Gas Film

Course Outcomes
CLO Explain the theoretical aspect of
1
momentum,
mass
and
energy
transport
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
2
methodology in analyzing momentum
transfer problem
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
3
methodology in analyzing heat transfer
problem
CLO Apply
mathematical
and
numerical
4
methodology in analyzing mass transfer
problem
CLO Analyze and solve transport phenomena
5
using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Semester May
2013

Lesson outcomes
At the end of the lesson the student should be able to
Lesson 26. Solve the problem of diffusion through a stagnant
spherical gas film.

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Consider vapor from the surface of a spherical liquid droplet, A, diffuses
through the stagnant gas film, B. It is desired to determine the molar
flux, the concentration profile and the molar flow rate of A for constant
temperature and pressure.
Solution
The problem can be solved by considering a hypothetical spherical stagnant
gas film around the droplet.

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Schematic Diagram

Assumptions
B is stagnant
NB=0

Boundary conditions
At r=r1 xA=x A1
At r=r2 xA=x A2

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Mechanisms of Mass Transfer
Combined mass transfer

N Az J Ar x A N Ar N Br

(1)

Since B is stagnant

N Ar J Ar x A N Ar

N Ar cDAB

dx A
x A N Ar
dr

(2)

Rearranging (2)

N Ar

cDAB dx A

1 x A dr

(3)

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Shell Balance

Rate of
Rate of
rate of production of A



0
mass of A in mass of A out by reaction

4 r 2 N Ar r r 2 N Ar

r r

(4)

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Dividing both sides of (4) by SZ

r 2 N Ar r r 2 N Ar
r

r r

(5)

Taking the shell as thin as possible:

d 2
(r N Ar ) 0
dr

(6)

Integrating (6)

r 2 N Az c1

(7)

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Combining (7) and (3)

cDAB dx A
r
c1
1 x A dr
2

dx A
c
12 dr
1 xA r

(8)

1 x A2
1 1

cDAB ln
c1

1 x A1
r1 r2

(9)

cDAB

Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Rearranging(9) we get

1 x A2
cDAB

c1
ln
(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 ) 1 x A1

(10)

Since c1=(1/r2) NAr from (7) , we get the molar flux equation to be

N Ar

1 x A2
cDAB

2
ln
r [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(11)

NB: Note that for gasses it is common to give the partial and total
pressure together with temperature, rather than concentration in
such cases (11) can be changed as follows

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Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


pA = partial pressure of A
pB = Partial pressure of B
P= total pressure
T= Temperature

P
RT

xA

pA
P

xB

pB
P

using the above relations in (11) we get

N Ar

P p A2
PDAB

2
ln
r RT [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] P p A1

(12)

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Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Composition distribution/ partial pressure distribution
Integrating (8) from r1 at composition xA1 to any r at composition xA

1 xA
1 1
c1
cDAB ln
1 x A1
r1 r

(13)

Dividing (13) by (9) and rearranging

1 1

r1 r
1 xA
1 x A2

ln

ln

1 x A1 1 1 1 x A1
r r
1 2
Simplifying (14) we get

1 x A 1 x A2

1 x A1 1 x A1

(14)

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r )
(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )

(15)

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Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


In terms of partial pressure

P p A P p A2

P p A1 P p A1

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r )
(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )

(15)

The total molar flow rate


The flux at any radius r is given by (11)

N Ar

1 x A2
cDAB

2
ln
r [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(11)

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Diffusion through a stagnant spherical gas film


Multiplying the flux (11) by the surface area at r, i.e., 4r2

1 x A2
4cDAB

WA
ln
[(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(16)

In terms of pressure and temperature

P p A2
4PDAB

WA
ln
RT [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] P p A1

(17)

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Lesson outcomes
Lesson 26. Solve the problem of diffusion through a spherical
stagnant gas film.

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