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ADVANCED TRANSPORT

PROCESSES /

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

5. Mass Transport

Lesson 26: Diffusion through a Spherical

Stagnant Gas Film

Course Outcomes

CLO Explain the theoretical aspect of

1

momentum,

mass

and

energy

transport

CLO Apply

mathematical

and

numerical

2

methodology in analyzing momentum

transfer problem

CLO Apply

mathematical

and

numerical

3

methodology in analyzing heat transfer

problem

CLO Apply

mathematical

and

numerical

4

methodology in analyzing mass transfer

problem

CLO Analyze and solve transport phenomena

5

using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Semester May

2013

Lesson outcomes

At the end of the lesson the student should be able to

Lesson 26. Solve the problem of diffusion through a stagnant

spherical gas film.

Consider vapor from the surface of a spherical liquid droplet, A, diffuses

through the stagnant gas film, B. It is desired to determine the molar

flux, the concentration profile and the molar flow rate of A for constant

temperature and pressure.

Solution

The problem can be solved by considering a hypothetical spherical stagnant

gas film around the droplet.

Schematic Diagram

Assumptions

B is stagnant

NB=0

Boundary conditions

At r=r1 xA=x A1

At r=r2 xA=x A2

Mechanisms of Mass Transfer

Combined mass transfer

N Az J Ar x A N Ar N Br

(1)

Since B is stagnant

N Ar J Ar x A N Ar

N Ar cDAB

dx A

x A N Ar

dr

(2)

Rearranging (2)

N Ar

cDAB dx A

1 x A dr

(3)

Shell Balance

Rate of

Rate of

rate of production of A

0

mass of A in mass of A out by reaction

4 r 2 N Ar r r 2 N Ar

r r

(4)

Dividing both sides of (4) by SZ

r 2 N Ar r r 2 N Ar

r

r r

(5)

d 2

(r N Ar ) 0

dr

(6)

Integrating (6)

r 2 N Az c1

(7)

Combining (7) and (3)

cDAB dx A

r

c1

1 x A dr

2

dx A

c

12 dr

1 xA r

(8)

1 x A2

1 1

cDAB ln

c1

1 x A1

r1 r2

(9)

cDAB

Rearranging(9) we get

1 x A2

cDAB

c1

ln

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 ) 1 x A1

(10)

Since c1=(1/r2) NAr from (7) , we get the molar flux equation to be

N Ar

1 x A2

cDAB

2

ln

r [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(11)

NB: Note that for gasses it is common to give the partial and total

pressure together with temperature, rather than concentration in

such cases (11) can be changed as follows

10

pA = partial pressure of A

pB = Partial pressure of B

P= total pressure

T= Temperature

P

RT

xA

pA

P

xB

pB

P

N Ar

P p A2

PDAB

2

ln

r RT [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] P p A1

(12)

11

Composition distribution/ partial pressure distribution

Integrating (8) from r1 at composition xA1 to any r at composition xA

1 xA

1 1

c1

cDAB ln

1 x A1

r1 r

(13)

1 1

r1 r

1 xA

1 x A2

ln

ln

1 x A1 1 1 1 x A1

r r

1 2

Simplifying (14) we get

1 x A 1 x A2

1 x A1 1 x A1

(14)

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r )

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )

(15)

12

In terms of partial pressure

P p A P p A2

P p A1 P p A1

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r )

(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )

(15)

The flux at any radius r is given by (11)

N Ar

1 x A2

cDAB

2

ln

r [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(11)

13

Multiplying the flux (11) by the surface area at r, i.e., 4r2

1 x A2

4cDAB

WA

ln

[(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] 1 x A1

(16)

P p A2

4PDAB

WA

ln

RT [(1 / r1 ) (1 / r2 )] P p A1

(17)

14

Lesson outcomes

Lesson 26. Solve the problem of diffusion through a spherical

stagnant gas film.

15

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