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CCB/CBB 3033

ADVANCED TRANSPORT
PROCESSES /
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
5. Energy Transport
Lesson 20. Heat Conduction through a Cylinder
Lesson 21. Heat Conduction Through a laminated tube

Lesson outcomes
At the end of the lesson the student should be able to
20. Solve problems concerning heat transfer through a cylinder
i. when the wall temperatures inside and outside are given
ii. when the bulk temperatures of the fluid inside and outside
the cylinder are given
21. Solve problems about heat transfer through composite
cylinders

Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 1


Conduction through a cylinder when wall temperatures are given : The
internal and external wall temperatures of the cylinder are T0 and T1 ,
respectively, and T0 > T1 . Determine the temperature distribution, the
heat flux and the heat flow.

Heat Conduction through a Slab: Case 1


Solution
Assumption
non-flow system, v =0
No energy generation( production)
No work done on the system by external force
Boundary Conditions
B.C.1 T=T0 at r = r0
B.C.1 T=T1 at r = r1
Energy Transport Mechanism

er qr ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v] qr

Shell Energy Balance

r
T qr|r

qr|r+r

Rate of Energy in by
molec. transport

Rate of Energy out


by molec. transport

2L((rq r ) |r (rq r ) |r r ) 0

=0
(1)

Dividing both sides by 2Lr

(rqr ) |r (rqr ) |r r 0
r

(2)
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Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 1


Taking the limit as r is close to zero

d
(rq r ) 0
dr

(3)

Integrating (3)

rq r r0 q0 c1

(4)

Applying Fouriers Law of heat conduction qr = -k dT/dr

dT
kr
r0 q0
dr

(5)

Rearranging and integrating (5)

T T1

r0 q0
ln(r / r1 )
k

(6)

Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 1


Similarly with T = T0 at r = r0 and T = T1 at r = r1

T0 T1

r0 q0
ln(r0 / r1 )
k

(7)

Dividing (6) by (7) we get the temperature distribution

T T1 ln(r / r1 )

T0 T1 ln(r0 / r1 )

Temperature
distribution

(8)

Rearranging (7) and using it with (4)

k
r0 q0 (T0 T1 )
rq r
ln(r1 / r0 )

(9)

Heat Flux and Heat Flow


Rearranging (9)

qr

k (T0 T1 )
r ln(r1 / r0 )

Heat flux
distribution

(10)

The heat flow is given by

k
Q0 2r0 L(T0 T1 )
r0 ln(r1 / r0 )
2L(T0 T1 )k
Q0
ln(r1 / r0 )

Heat flow

(11)

Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 2


Conduction through a cylinder when fluid bulk temperatures are given :
The bulk temperature of the fluid inside and outside the tube are Ta and
Tb, respectively, and Ta > Tb . Determine the heat flux at the inside
surface and the heat flow.

Heat Conduction through a Slab: Case 1


Solution
Assumption
non-flow system, v =0
No energy generation( production)
No work done on the system by external force
Boundary Conditions

B.C.1

at r r0 q0 h0 (Ta T0 )

B.C.2

at r r1 q1 h1 (T1 Tb )

Newtons Law of cooling

Energy Transport Mechanism

er qr ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v] qr

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Shell Energy Balance

r
T qr|r

qr|r+r

Rate of Energy in by
molec. transport

Rate of Energy out


by molec. transport

2L((rq r ) |r (rq r ) |r r ) 0

=0
(1)

Dividing both sides by 2Lr

(rqr ) |r (rqr ) |r r 0
r

(2)
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Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 2


Taking the limit as r is close to zero

d
(rq r ) 0
dr

(3)

Integrating (3)

rq r r0 q0 c1

(4)

Applying Fouriers Law of heat conduction qr = -k dT/dr

kr

dT
r0 q0
dr

(5)

Rearranging and integrating at r0 and r1

r0 q0
T0 T1
ln(r1 / r0 )
k

(6)
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Heat Conduction through a cylinder: Case 2


Using Newtons Law of cooling

q0
h0
q q r
T1 Tb 1 0 0
h1 h1 r1

(7)

Ta T0

since q0 r0 q1r1

(8)

Adding (6) , (7) and (8) together

Ta Tb

q0 r0 q0
q r

ln(r1 / r0 ) 0 0
h0
k
h1 r1

(9)

Rearranging (9) we get

q0

Ta Tb
1
ln(r1 / r0 ) 1

r0

k
r1h1
r0 h0

Heat flux at r0

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(10)

Heat Flow
The heat flow at the inner surface is given by

Q0 2r0 Lq0

(11)

Using (10) in (11) we get the heat flow

2L Ta Tb
Q0
1
ln(r1 / r0 ) 1

k
r1h1
r0 h0

Heat flow

(12)

The heat flow in terms of the overall heat transfer coefficient U0

Q0 U 0 2Lr0 (Ta Tb )

(13)

From (12) and (13)

1
1
ln(r1 / r0 ) 1

r0U 0 r0 h0
k
r1h1

(14)

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Heat Conduction through a Composite


Cylinder
Conduction through composite cylinder:- The composite cylinders
shown in the Figure below is exposed to a fluid at bulk temperatures of
Ta and Tb where Ta > Tb . Determine the heat flux and the heat flow at
the surface for steady state condition.

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Heat Conduction through a Slab: Case 1


Solution
Assumption
non-flow system, v =0
No energy generation( production)
No work done on the system by external force
Boundary Conditions

B.C.1

at r r0 q0 h0 (Ta T0 )

B.C.2

at r r1 q1 h1 (T1 Tb )

Newtons Law of cooling

Energy Transport Mechanism

er qr ( 12 v 2 H )v [ v] qr

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Shell Energy Balance

r
T qr|r

qr|r+r

Rate of Energy in by
molec. transport

Rate of Energy out


by molec. transport

2L((rq r ) |r (rq r ) |r r ) 0

=0
(1)

Dividing both sides by 2Lr

(rqr ) |r (rqr ) |r r 0
r

(2)
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Heat Conduction through a Comp. Cylinder


Taking the limit as r is close to zero

d
(rq r ) 0
dr

(3)

Integrating (3)

rq r r0 q0 c1

(4)

Applying Fouriers Law of heat conduction

k01r

dT
r0 q0
dr

(5a)

dT
k12 r
r0 q0
dr
k 23r

(5b)

dT
r0 q0
dr

(5c)

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Heat Conduction through a Comp. Cylinder


Integrating (5a), (5b) and (5c) assuming constant heat capacities

r0 q0
T0 T1
ln(r1 / r0 )
k01
r0 q0
T1 T2
ln(r2 / r1 )
k12
T2 T3

(6a)
(6b)

r0 q0
ln(r3 / r2 )
k 23

(6b)

Using Newtons law of cooling at the two fluid-solid interfaces

q0
Ta T0
h0
q
q r
T3 Tb 3 0 0
h3 h3 r3

(7)
(8)

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Heat Conduction through a Comp. Cylinder


Adding (6a), (6b) , (6c), (7) and (8) together

Ta Tb

q0 r0 q0
rq
rq
q r

ln(r1 / r0 ) 0 0 ln(r2 / r1 ) 0 0 ln(r3 / r2 ) 0 0


h0
k
k
k
h3 r3

(9)

Rearranging (9) we get the heat flux at the inner surface

Ta Tb
q0
1
ln(r1 / r0 ) ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 )
1

r0

k01
k12
k 23
r3 h3
r0 h0

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(10)

Heat Flow
The heat flow at the inner surface is given by

Q0 2r0 Lq0

(11)

Using (10) in (11) we get the heat flow

Q0

2L(Ta Tb )
1
ln(r1 / r0 ) ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 )
1

k01
k12
k 23
r3h3
r0 h0

(12)

The heat flow in terms of the overall heat transfer coefficient U0

Q0 U 0 2Lr0 (Ta Tb )

(13)

From (12) and (13)

ln(r1 / r0 ) ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 )


1
1
1

r0U 0 r0 h0
k01
k12
k 23
r3h3
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(14)

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for


Comp. Cylinder
In general for a system with n annular layers we get the definition for overall
heat transfer coefficient for composite cylinder
n ln(r / r
1
1
1
j
j 1 )

r0U 0 r0 h0 j 1 k j 1, j
rn hn

(16)

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Lesson outcomes
19. Solve problems concerning heat transfer through a cylinder
i. when the wall temperatures inside and outside are given
ii. when the bulk temperatures of the fluid inside and outside
the cylinder are given
20. Solve problems about heat transfer through composite
cylinders

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