Introduction to GIS

Introduction to the Architecture of ArcGIS
By-Gaurav Agrawal Sch. No.-092110208 Branch –Remote Sensing & GIS In guidance of: Dr. S.K. Katiyar . Dr. P.K. Singh MANIT, Bhopal( M.P.)

Introduction to GIS

What is ArcGIS?
• ArcGIS Desktop is a software product from ESRI • It comes in three versions:
• ArcView – basic desktop package, $ • ArcEditor – ArcView +Advanced editing, $$ • ArcInfo – ArcEditor + Comprehensive Geoprocessing, $$$

• We are using ArcInfo

Introduction to GIS

Components of Arc GIS
• All installation levels of Arc GIS come with
– ArcMap (now includes toolbox in Arc 9.0) – ArcCatalog

• ArcInfo installation – ArcInfo Workstation
– ArcReader – ArcObjects Developer Tools – ArcScene

Introduction to GIS

Components of Arc GIS
• How do you access these? • Go to the start menu>>programs>>ArcGIS

Introduction to GIS

ArcCatalog
•for organizing and managing spatial and tabular data •This button allows you to connect to a local folder or a network place
Main menu Standard Toolbar

Catalog tree

Catalog display

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog
•Once you’ve mapped your network drive, you can open an Arc Catalog connection to it, or to a subfolder in it

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog
•For instance, here are the contents of my nr143 folder on my Z: account, which I made a connection to:

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog
•There are five types of data shown here
Geodatabase

Coverage Tabular data Arc Map Project file Shapefile

Introduction to GIS

Data types
• Shapefile: native file format for the ArcView 3.x; • Coverage: native file format for old ArcInfo 7.x Is not a file, but a complex directory structure • Dbase/tabular data: non-spatial data table that can be used in a GIS, spreadsheet or database--.dbf • Map document: a project file—it stores your map view and preferences in ArcGIS

Introduction to GIS

Data types
•Geodatabase: This is ArcGIS’s new data model for storing geographic information
•It can contain any number of layers within it, known as “feature classes.” Shapefile have only one feature class •As an example, here is a geodatabase with three layers, as seen in Arc Catalog

Introduction to GIS

Feature classes
•In a geodatabase there are features classes for points, lines and areas (polygons) as well as for rasters (surfaces), annotation (labels) and dimensions

Polygon, or area feature class Line, or arc feature class Annotation class: stores info about displaying labels on a map layer; important for roads and utilities

Introduction to GIS

Feature dataset
• Feature dataset: a thematic grouping of feature classes • Feature classes can be stand alone

Feature data sets Feature classes

Introduction to GIS

Geodatabase
•Geodatabases offer numerous advantages:
• Multiple spatial layers and non-spatial data sources can be stored in a single file and organized thematically • Rules can be easily defined that can apply to all classes • These rules can include relationships between layers • For instance if you have one subclass with water lines and one with water valves, you can ensure that if you move a water line, the water valve that connects that line will move as well, or it ensures that, say, if the material attribute for a water line is set to copper, the water valves that connect to it will also be copper

Introduction to GIS

Geodatabase
•Other advantages:
• Spatial layers maintain the same measurement and geographic reference systems, because new layers added to the geodatabase can “inherent” properties of existing ones • Labeling “behavior” can be stored as an annotation feature class, making it easier to keep labels consistent • “Domains” can be established, which specify the valid ranges of values for attributes, which reduces input error.

Introduction to GIS

Geodatabase
•Types: Personal or multiple user
• We will use personal geodatabases. These are actually Microsoft Access files with the .MDB file extension. • A multi-user (SDE) geodatabase is for organizations that wish to have many people accessing the same database. These are used with enterprise database systems, like Oracle, Informix or SQL Server

Introduction to GIS

Personal Geodatabase
• With

Access you can edit and query attribute tables and manage relationships between feature classes • But it can only be viewed spatially in ArcGIS

Introduction to GIS

•Arc Catalog is where you can create and modify geodatabases.
•You can create new feature classes, tables or relationship classes within a geodatabase •You can also import existing shapefiles or coverages into a geodatabase or export a feature class to a shapefile

Arc Catalog: data management

Introduction to GIS

•Through right clicking, you can access the properties of a feature subclass and make changes to fields for the feature class’ attribute table

Arc Catalog: data management

Introduction to GIS

• Arc Catalog also allows you to access some data directly from the Internet • It comes preloaded with a connection to the Geography Network, where many layers are available through the Arc Internet Map Server (IMS) service ; other Internet connections can be added

Arc Catalog: Online data

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog: Online data
•Geography network data

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog:Functionality
•Arc Catalog allows you to preview geographic data, including geodatabase feature classes

Use these buttons to zoom and pan

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog:Functionality
•You can also preview online data sets, like those from the geography network

Introduction to GIS

Arc Catalog:Functionality
…and you can preview and browse tabular attribute data

Introduction to GIS

• Preview, create and modify the “metadata,” or data about the data

Arc Catalog: Functionality

Arc Catalog standardizes this information and allows you to import and export metadata between layers

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map
• Arc Map is where you’ll do most of your mapping and visualization of spatial data
• This is the default upper tool and menu bar

Add new layer

Change map’s display scale (zoom factor)

Zoom tools Zoom to full extent

Find feature measure Select feature

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: overlaying data
•Using the add data button, you can overlay any number of layers for which geographic reference information exists.

TOC

Display Window

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: overlaying data
•The window on the left side of Arc Map is the Table of Contents, where loaded layers are listed •There are 2 modes for the TOC: display and source
Display: note that it gives a symbol for the feature type Source mode:
can see that the first 3 layers are from 1 geodatabase and the fourth is from a stand alone file

TOC

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: properties
•You can access many functions by right clicking on the layer in the TOC.
•You can access, edit and query attribute tables from a special interface

Introduction to GIS

•You can access layer properties by double clicking on that layer: much functionality is found there

Arc Map: Layer properties

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: Layouts
•Arc Map can view in two modes: •data view: for viewing, analyzing and manipulating data •layout view: for laying out data for presentation

• Map and Display units.

Arc Map: Measurement Units
•With reference info • Map units are already set; Display units are still changeable

Introduction to GIS

•Without reference info • Define map units (This turns into guesswork)

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: Units
•Once you’ve set display units, future geographic measurement functions should be in those units, even if they’re different from the Map units; however, this does not apply to non-spatial attribute values •If you use the ruler tool for instance, measurements will be in the selected Display units at the bottom of the page

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: Scale
• Translation factor between one unit on the map and same unit in the real world • map units: ground units (ratio) • 1:10,000:1 inch equals 10,000 inches in real world
• Scale is a dimensionless number

Introduction to GIS

Large vs. Small Scale
• Large scale • Lots of detail • Shows small features • Small scale • No much detail • Shows large features

Introduction to GIS

Large vs. Small Scale
USA

Washington State

1:21,197,708 Clark County, Washington

1:3,125,078

highway interchange Clark County, Washington 1:30,137 1:5,269

Introduction to GIS

ArcGIS: Extensions
• Specialized applications
- 3D Analyst - Spatial Analyst - Geostatistical Analyst - Tracking Analyst, X Tools… - Others…

Introduction to GIS

ArcGIS: Extensions
• Activate by going to Tools>>extensions

Introduction to GIS

Arc Map: toolbars
•When you load Arc Map it defaults to a state with a minimum of toolbars. You can add more toolbars representing more functionality, including extensions from the view menu.

Introduction to GIS

Arc Toolbox

• Used to be a separate interface, now part of ArcMap

Introduction to GIS

Arc Toolbox
 Advanced Analyses • Extract • Overlay • Proximity • Statistics

Introduction to GIS

Arc Toolbox
• Data Conversions – Change formats from one file type to another …

Introduction to GIS

Arc Toolbox
• Data Management – A collection of tools for data management…

Introduction to GIS

Arc Scene
•Primarily for viewing 3D data

Thank you

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