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John Locke

GLOBAL POLITICS AND EURO-MEDITERRANEAN


RELATIONS
Department of Political and Social Sciences University of Catania
Italy

Presentatio

Presented By
Waqas SHAHZAD

Presented
To
Prof.ssa Giorgia
COSTANZO

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Introduction:
Father of Liberalism
Physician, Economist, Ideologue and
Political Philosopher
One of the greatest Enlightenment
Thinker
Played a great role towards modern
Liberal Democracy

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


His Philosophy: 1704)
Where we get our Ideas from?
Can we rely on what our senses tells us?
Is
there
some
limit
to
human
understanding?
What rights human naturally have?
Believed that human being can know with
precision about God and Morality
Human being born with no innate ideas
and is shaped by experience. So we are the
creator of Morals and Political Ideas
Senses and Reflections are two sources of
all our ideas
Good or evil largely depends on the kind of
education we receive
Department of Political & Social Sciences,
University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Views about Religion:
God is Immaterial
Mere matter cannot produce thoughts
We are thinking being, something can be
created by something superior, so, we are
created by something that thinks and is
superior to us
There are things that we cannot
demonstrate but still believe based on
revelation
But we cant be sure about it as other
knowledge and it should be rationally
evaluated

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


Political Theory: 1704)
Human Nature is characterized by reason and
tolerance
Sole right to defend is not enough in the state of
nature
Civil Society is required for Conflict Resolution in
the Society in civic way

Lokian State of Nature:

Absolute Liberty
One ought not to harm other fellows and their
property
One is ones own judge for how to use ones rights
One might abuse the rights and come into conflict
So, properties are not secure

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Lockian Natural Rights:
Any state without government will be subjected to Natural Laws
Natural Laws are God given and discoverable through reflection
Natural Laws can be enforced by anyone
There exist a potential of bias regarding the way laws are enforced
People are equal at individual, social and political level so need Laws by consent
Individual Rights
Right to Life
Right to Liberty and Equality
Right to own the fruits of ones Labor

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Lockian Natural Rights:
Communal Rights

No group of human beings is entitled by God or Nature to rule others because all have the
same Godgiven authority over ourselves

Every individual born with the same authority as Adam authority on him and his children
as long as they themselves become responsible

There is no reliable way to decide between the potential claimants of the Adamic authority
Economic Rights

Right to bear the fruits of ones Labor

People will be willing to work together in absence of Government

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Lockian Natural Rights:
Political Rights

Can group and politically organize

Authority of the King must be derived from the consent of all the Individuals (who are all
free and equal)

Government is based on the consent of the Governed

Government is for common benefits not for personal benefits


Judicial Rights

Equality before the Law


Supremacy of Law (No one above the Law)

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Civil Society:
Main reason is the protection of property
Society arises because men seek to leave the state
of nature
Creation of civil society based on social contract
Civil society is a political society and society of laws

Three Elements of Civil


A common Established Law
Society:
A known and impartial body to Judge
Power to support such Judgements

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Civil Government:
Laws must preserve natural freedom
Surrender rights to an authority which will preserve their property
The authority can punish for violations of rights according to civil
laws
Government should implement laws instead of enjoying absolute
power because no man is superior than others
Separation of Legislature and Executive

Social Contract:

Creates a commonwealth for the people


Establishment of Laws
Designation of Supreme power
By Virtue of the Contract Majority Wins
Contract entails consent
Department of Political & Social Sciences,
University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Civil Government:
Laws should be for common good
Legislature can operate according to standing laws
No one even rulers are not above the law
No one can be deprived of property without
consent
Principle of non-delegation of powers
Separation between Legislative and Executive
functions
People still holds power to remove or alter the
legislature
Abusive rulers command no allegiance over their
subjects
Secularization of the state
Rationalism

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Natural

John Locke (1632


1704)
Civil Government:

HOBBES

THOUGH
TS

People
create People are born with
Government for Law Natural Rights but
and Order
give
up
some
freedom to protect
these rights

The
only
good
Government can be
formed out of free
will by the people for
the people

GOVT.
FAVORE
D
APPROA
CH

Absolute Monarchy

Self-Government
Direct Democracy

Individual
Approach

LOCKE

ROUSSEAU

Self-Government
Representative
Democracy

Based Community
Approach

Based Government
Approach

Based

Department of Political & Social Sciences,


University of Catania - Italy

Conclusion

Thank
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