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PHYSICS UNIT 3: CIRCULAR

& ROTATIONAL MOTION

CIRCULAR MOTION

Uniform Circular
Motion
period, T: time for one
complete revolution, unit: s
speed is constant
v = 2r/T
(r: radius)
velocity
is constantly

changing (because direction


is changing)

CIRCULAR MOTION

all turning
objects
have
centripetal
(centerseeking)
acceleratio
n

CIRCULAR MOTION

centripetal acceleration, ac = v2/r


the greater the speed, the greater
the centripetal acceleration
the smaller the radius of the turn,
the greater the centripetal
acceleration
a centripetal acceleration requires a
centripetal force

CIRCULAR MOTION

no
centrip
etal
force =
no
turning
(linear
motion)

CIRCULAR MOTION

centripetal force, Fc = mv2/r

any force can be


a centripetal
force: gravity
(planets &
moons), friction
(car turning a
corner), tension
(ball on a string),
etc.

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of
Reference inside a turning
object, there
seems to be a
centrifugal
(center- fleeing)
force pulling on
objects

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of
Reference outside the
turning object, we
see objects inside
move in a straight
line (inertia), until
they get pulled
into the turn by
centripetal force

CIRCULAR MOTION

centrifugal
force only
exists within
the turning
objects frame
of reference - it
is a fictitious
force

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of
Reference things
moving on a
rotating
object seem
to be made
to turn by the
coriolis
force

PHYSICS
UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &
ROTATIONAL MOTION

QUIZ 3.1
A 50 kg child on a merry-go-round sits 2.0 m
from the center and makes 2.0 complete revolution
every second.
(a) Find the child's period.
(b) Find the child's tangential speed.
(c) Find the child's centripetal acceleration.
(d) Find the centripetal force on the child.

v = 2r/T
ac = v2/r
Fc = mv2/r

PHYSICS
UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &
ROTATIONAL MOTION

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation: masses


attract
gravity force is proportional to each mass

twice the mass = twice the force


gravity force is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between the masses

twice the distance = the force

distance measured from center of mass:

point on a body around which mass is


balanced

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation:

Fg = Gm1m2/r2

FG: force of gravity, m: mass, r:


distance between masses

G: universal gravitational constant,


6.6710-11 Nm2/kg2
gravity is only significant for very large
masses

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

acceleration due to gravity, g = Gme/r2

Also known as the gravitational field


strength

me: earth's mass (5.971024 kg)


r: distance from earths center (6.38106 m +
altitude)
g is only 9.80 m/s2 at sea level it decreases as
altitude increases
g is different on other planets & moons (it
depends on the planets mass and radius)

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Orbits: gravity provides the


centripetal force

stable orbit: Fc = Fg

orbit speed v = Gme/r

orbit period T = 2r/v

geosynchronous orbit: T = 24.0


hrs, satellite stays over same
position on earth

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Orbits
always falling but never reaching the
ground
"Weightlessness" is NOT gravity-less

no gravity = no orbit

weightless is no normal force

PHYSICS
UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &
ROTATIONAL MOTION

ROTATIONAL MOTION

Rotational Motion: rotation around an


internal axis
angle, : how much an object has rotated,
unit: radian (rad)

2 rad = 360 = 1 revolution (rev)


angular velocity, = /t: rate of rotation,
unit: rad/s
frequency: revolutions per second, unit: Hertz,
Hz

1 Hz = 1 rev/s = 2 rad/s

ROTATIONAL MOTION

angular acceleration, = /t: rate of


change in rotation, unit: rad/s2

Rotational Motion & Circular


Motion

for any point on a spinning object:

v = r
a = r2
c

ROTATIONAL MOTION

torque, : rotating effect


of a force, unit: Nm
= Fdsin

d: "torque arm" or "lever


arm

q: angle between F and


d
torque direction: clockwise
(c) or counterclockwise
(cc)

ROTATIONAL MOTION
Torque is zero when = 0 or 180
Torque is maximum when = 90

ROTATIONAL MOTION

Newton's Laws for Rotary Motion


A spinning object keeps spinning with
constant angular velocity unless a
net torque acts on it
A net torque causes an angular
acceleration
For every action torque, there is an
equal and opposite reaction torque

ROTATIONAL MOTION

Rotational Equilibrium: object is


balanced, or moves with constant
angular velocity, due to no net
torque

tc = tdcc1

d
2

F1

F2d2 = F1d1

PHYSICS
UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &
ROTATIONAL MOTION

UNIT 3 REVIEW
v = 2r/T

ac = v2/r

Fc = mv2/r

Fg = Gm1m2/r2 G = 6.6710-11 Nm2/kg2


g = Gmp/r2

v = Gmp/r

me = 5.971024 kg
m
= /t
= /t
v = r ac = r2
= Fdsin

tc = tcc

re = 6.38106