Physics Presentation for IB

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Physics Presentation for IB

© All Rights Reserved

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CIRCULAR MOTION

Uniform Circular

Motion

period, T: time for one

complete revolution, unit: s

speed is constant

v = 2r/T

(r: radius)

velocity

is constantly

is changing)

CIRCULAR MOTION

all turning

objects

have

centripetal

(centerseeking)

acceleratio

n

CIRCULAR MOTION

the greater the speed, the greater

the centripetal acceleration

the smaller the radius of the turn,

the greater the centripetal

acceleration

a centripetal acceleration requires a

centripetal force

CIRCULAR MOTION

no

centrip

etal

force =

no

turning

(linear

motion)

CIRCULAR MOTION

a centripetal

force: gravity

(planets &

moons), friction

(car turning a

corner), tension

(ball on a string),

etc.

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of

Reference inside a turning

object, there

seems to be a

centrifugal

(center- fleeing)

force pulling on

objects

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of

Reference outside the

turning object, we

see objects inside

move in a straight

line (inertia), until

they get pulled

into the turn by

centripetal force

CIRCULAR MOTION

centrifugal

force only

exists within

the turning

objects frame

of reference - it

is a fictitious

force

CIRCULAR MOTION

Frames of

Reference things

moving on a

rotating

object seem

to be made

to turn by the

coriolis

force

PHYSICS

UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &

ROTATIONAL MOTION

QUIZ 3.1

A 50 kg child on a merry-go-round sits 2.0 m

from the center and makes 2.0 complete revolution

every second.

(a) Find the child's period.

(b) Find the child's tangential speed.

(c) Find the child's centripetal acceleration.

(d) Find the centripetal force on the child.

v = 2r/T

ac = v2/r

Fc = mv2/r

PHYSICS

UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &

ROTATIONAL MOTION

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

attract

gravity force is proportional to each mass

gravity force is inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between the masses

balanced

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Fg = Gm1m2/r2

distance between masses

6.6710-11 Nm2/kg2

gravity is only significant for very large

masses

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

strength

r: distance from earths center (6.38106 m +

altitude)

g is only 9.80 m/s2 at sea level it decreases as

altitude increases

g is different on other planets & moons (it

depends on the planets mass and radius)

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

centripetal force

stable orbit: Fc = Fg

hrs, satellite stays over same

position on earth

UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

Orbits

always falling but never reaching the

ground

"Weightlessness" is NOT gravity-less

no gravity = no orbit

PHYSICS

UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &

ROTATIONAL MOTION

ROTATIONAL MOTION

internal axis

angle, : how much an object has rotated,

unit: radian (rad)

angular velocity, = /t: rate of rotation,

unit: rad/s

frequency: revolutions per second, unit: Hertz,

Hz

1 Hz = 1 rev/s = 2 rad/s

ROTATIONAL MOTION

change in rotation, unit: rad/s2

Motion

v = r

a = r2

c

ROTATIONAL MOTION

of a force, unit: Nm

= Fdsin

arm

d

torque direction: clockwise

(c) or counterclockwise

(cc)

ROTATIONAL MOTION

Torque is zero when = 0 or 180

Torque is maximum when = 90

ROTATIONAL MOTION

A spinning object keeps spinning with

constant angular velocity unless a

net torque acts on it

A net torque causes an angular

acceleration

For every action torque, there is an

equal and opposite reaction torque

ROTATIONAL MOTION

balanced, or moves with constant

angular velocity, due to no net

torque

tc = tdcc1

d

2

F1

F2d2 = F1d1

PHYSICS

UNIT 3: CIRCULAR &

ROTATIONAL MOTION

UNIT 3 REVIEW

v = 2r/T

ac = v2/r

Fc = mv2/r

g = Gmp/r2

v = Gmp/r

me = 5.971024 kg

m

= /t

= /t

v = r ac = r2

= Fdsin

tc = tcc

re = 6.38106

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