Bearing

History of Bearing

Classification of Bearing base on friction
• Anti Friction bearing

• Friction bearing/journal bearing

Classification of Bearing base on load

•Radial Load •Axial load •Tangential load/ combination

Part of Bearing
• There are four major parts to a standard ball bearing:
– – – – the outer race, the rolling balls, the inner race, and the cage.

Manufacturing race
• Both races are made in almost the same way. Since they are both rings of steel, the process starts with steel tubing of an appropriate size. Automatic machines similar to lathes use cutting tools to cut the basic shape of the race, leaving all of the dimensions slightly too large. The reason for leaving them too large is that the races must be heat treated before being finished, and the steel • The rough cut races are put into a heat treating furnace at about 1,550 degrees Fahrenheit (843 degrees Celsius) for up to several hours (depending on the size of the parts), then dipped into an oil bath to cool them and make them very hard. This hardening also makes them brittle, so the next step is to temper them. This is done by heating them in a second oven to about 300 degrees Fahrenheit (148.8 degrees Celsius), and then letting them cool in air. This whole heat treatment process makes parts which are both hard and tough

The Manufacturing Ball Cold Heading

Cage
• Steel cages are stamped out of fairly thin sheet metal, much like a cookie cutter, and then bent to their final shape in a die. A die is made up of two pieces of steel that fit together, with a hole the shape of the finished part carved inside. When the cage is put in between and the die is closed, the cage is bent to the shape of the hole inside. The die is then opened, and the finished part is taken out, ready to be assembled. • Plastic cages are usually made by a process called injection molding. In this process, a hollow metal mold is filled by squirting melted plastic into it, and letting it harden. The mold is opened up, and the finished cage is taken out, ready for assembly

Assembly
• Now that all of the parts are made, the bearing needs to be put together. • First, the inner race is put inside the outer race, only off to one side as far as possible. This makes a space between them on the opposite side large enough to insert balls between them. • The required number of balls is put in, then the races are moved so that they are both centered, and the balls distributed evenly around the bearing. At this point, the cage is installed to hold the balls apart from each other. • Plastic cages are usually just snapped in, while steel cages usually have to be put in and riveted together. • Now that the bearing is assembled, it is coated with a rust preventative and packaged for shipping

How Bearings Work ?
• The Basics
– The concept behind a bearing is very simple: Things roll better than they slide. The wheels on your car are like big bearings. If you had something like skis instead of wheels, your car would be a lot more difficult to push down the road. – That is because when things slide, the friction between them causes a force that tends to slow them down. But if the two surfaces can roll over each other, the friction is greatly reduced.

• Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth metal balls or rollers, and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the balls to roll against. These balls or rollers "bear" the load, allowing the device to spin smoothly

Bearing Loads
• Bearings typically have to deal with two kinds of loading, radial and thrust. • Depending on where the bearing is being used, it may see all radial loading, all thrust loading or a combination of both

Radial Load

Axial load/Trust

Tangential load/combination

Types of Bearings
• Ball Bearings • Roller Bearings • Ball Thrust Bearing • Roller Thrust Bearing • Tapered Roller Bearings

Ball Bearings
• Ball bearings, as shown below, are probably the most common type of bearing. They are found in everything from inline skates to hard drives. These bearings can handle both radial and thrust loads, and are usually found in applications where the load is relatively small • In a ball bearing, the load is transmitted from the outer race to the ball, and from the ball to the inner race. Since the ball is a sphere, it only contacts the inner and outer race at a very small point, which helps it spin very smoothly. But it also means that there is not very much contact area holding that load, so if the bearing is overloaded, the balls can deform or squish, ruining the bearing

Roller Bearings
• Roller bearings like the one illustrated below are used in applications like conveyer belt rollers, where they must hold heavy radial loads. In these bearings, the roller is a cylinder, so the contact between the inner and outer race is not a point but a line. This spreads the load out over a larger area, allowing the bearing to handle much greater loads than a ball bearing. However, this type of bearing is not designed to handle much thrust loading. • A variation of this type of bearing, called a needle bearing, uses cylinders with a very small diameter. This allows the bearing to fit into tight places

Ball Thrust Bearing
• Ball thrust bearings like the one shown below are mostly used for low-speed applications and cannot handle much radial load. Barstools and Lazy Susan turntables use this type of bearing

Roller Thrust Bearing
• Roller thrust bearings like the one illustrated below can support large thrust loads. They are often found in gearsets like car transmissions between gears, and between the housing and the rotating shafts. • The helical gears used in most transmissions have angled teeth -- this causes a thrust load that must be supported by a bearing

Tapered Roller Bearings
• Tapered roller bearings can support large radial and large thrust loads • Tapered roller bearings are used in car hubs, where they are usually mounted in pairs facing opposite directions so that they can handle thrust in both directions • Tapered roller bearings are used in car hubs, where they are usually mounted in pairs facing opposite directions so that they can handle thrust in both directions

TYPES OF HIGH-PRECISION BEARINGS
• ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARINGS • CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARINGS • ANGULAR CONTACT THRUST BALL BEARINGS • HYBRID BEARINGS

ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARINGS
• These non-separable (essentially single-row) bearings (in a variety of series and designs) feature raceways in the inner and outer rings. • The load is transmitted from one raceway to another at an angle to the bearing axis. • These bearings, therefore, can carry axial loads acting in one direction, as well as radial loads. (Axial forces produced in the bearing when subjected to a radial load must be counteracted by an opposing force applied externally, so these bearings are adjusted against a second bearing.) • Angular contact ball bearings are supplied singly or in bearing sets, and as full steel or hybrids (bearings having steel rings and ceramic rolling elements.) Bearing sets are most often specified when the load carrying capacity of a single bearing is inadequate, or if axial loads acting in both directions must be accommodated

CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARINGS
• Available in many designs, dimension series, and sizes, these high-precision double-row and single row bearings feature low cross-sectional height and high load-carrying and speed capabilities. They can enable spindle bearing arrangements to be designed for heavy radial loads, high stiffness, relatively high speed, and axial compliance. (Double-row cylindrical roller bearings can carry very high loads; single-row bearings are used where increased speed capability and more compact spindle design are needed.) • Hybrid cylindrical roller bearings incorporate specially designed ceramic rollers for superior rigidity, speed, and service life.

ANGULAR CONTACT THRUST BALL BEARINGS
• These types are well-suited for applications demanding accuracy and rigidity of machine tool work spindles. • Single direction thrust ball bearings consist of a shaft washer, a housing washer, and a ball and cage thrust assembly. As the name suggests, these ball bearings can accommodate axial loads in one direction and locate a shaft axially in one direction. • Double direction thrust ball bearings consist of one shaft washer, two housing washers, and two ball and cage thrust assemblies. These types can axially locate a shaft in both directions.

HYBRID BEARINGS
• This type features rings and cages manufactured from bearing steel and balls (the rolling elements) made from silicon nitride weighing only 40 percent of their steel equivalents. • This translates to low centrifugal force and low load on the raceway at high speeds. Hybrid bearings exhibit high-speed capability, long service life, and high wear resistance, and can also serve to provide electrical insulation. • Since the dimensions of hybrid bearings are the same as those of steel bearings, a switch to hybrid bearings requires no design changes. (From our application files: A leading machine manufacturer was able to design a high-speed angle grinder, using hybrid bearings, with the pneumatic turbine rotating at 60,000 r/min. Before the age of ceramics, this level of performance would have been impossible.)

BEARING CHARACTERISTICS
• LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY AND LIFE • RIGIDITY • SPEED • PRELOAD • TOLERANCES

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY AND LIFE
• In general machinery applications, the bearing size required for a given bearing arrangement is usually determined by the load carrying capacity. However, selection is made not only in relation to the actual load, but also to the desired life and operational reliability. • For machine tool spindles, bearing size is almost always determined by criteria such as stiffness of the system, fixed dimensions for the tool holder, or the spindle bore. The bearings selected according to such criteria yield arrangements that often exhibit extremely long life. • For precision bearings, determining the load to which a bearing will be subjected is particularly complex, since it involves many influencing factors. (In these cases, special computer programs have been developed and should be engaged to calculate load carrying capacity and life.)

RIGIDITY
• The rigidity of a bearing arrangement will be influenced by bearing stiffness, which is the relationship between bearing load and deformation. • The stiffness of a bearing depends on its type and size with these factors being the most important criteria: types of rolling element (rollers or balls); number and size of rolling elements; contact angle; applied load; and applied preload. Because of a much larger contact area between rolling elements and raceways in a roller bearing than in a ball bearing, roller bearing stiffness will be much higher than ball bearing stiffness. In addition, as the contact area between rolling elements and raceways is smaller under light loads, the resulting stiffness will be lower than under heavy loads. As a result, it is best to follow the rule of thumb: where high radial stiffness is required, bearings with the smallest possible contact angle should be used. Conversely, where high axial stiffness is desired, the contact angle should be as large as possible. • The number (not size) of rolling elements will have the greatest influence on bearing stiffness. A given percentage increase in the number of balls or rollers will increase bearing stiffness by a greater amount than the same percentage increase in rolling element size. In addition, the use of two or more bearings at one position will further increase the stiffness of a bearing arrangement. (Angular contact ball bearings supplied in matched sets are best suited in these cases.) Bearing stiffness can also be enhanced by preload.

SPEED
• The speed at which rolling bearings can operate is largely governed by permissible operating temperature. Bearing types with low friction (and, therefore, low heat generation) in the bearings themselves are most appropriate for high speed operation; and, in general, ball bearings will be chosen for high speed. • However, the overriding parameter that sets the actual limit for the operating speed in bearing systems is the maximum permissible temperature for safeguarding the lubricant life and the complete system’s thermal stability. The operating temperature depends on many factors (bearings are only one consideration), ranging from the temperature of the environment and heat generated by motors to electrical losses and friction in the bearings. • As for heat generated by the bearings themselves, several potential causes can exist relating to the bearing’s internal design, the material of the rings and rolling elements, type of lubrication, and/or the loads acting on the bearings (including preloading). (Designers will compensate by modifying bearing arrangements.)

PRELOAD
• Machine tool spindles are almost always fitted with preloaded bearings or preloaded bearing sets for two key reasons: preloading makes it possible to increase both bearing stiffness and the arrangement’s running accuracy. • Single row angular contact ball bearings are generally adjusted against each other by axial displacement of the inner or outer rings until a certain preload (or a certain clearance) is obtained in the bearing arrangement. (Single row angular contact ball bearings that are mounted in sets can be matched in production so that when they are mounted immediately adjacent to each other, predetermined values of preload are obtained.) • Cylindrical ball bearings with tapered bore are preloaded by driving the inner ring up onto its tapered seating. For double direction angular contact thrust ball bearings, the spacer sleeve arranged between the shaft washers is dimensioned so that a suitable preload will be achieved once the bearing has been mounted. • In very high speed bearing arrangements incorporating angular contact ball bearings, it is customary to axially preload by means of springs, which enables a constant preload to be maintained throughout a whole range of operating conditions. • In practice, the amount of preload that can be applied to a rolling bearing will be limited, because frictional losses and operating temperature increase with increasing preload, reducing bearing life. An optimum preload yields the greatest possible bearing stiffness for the smallest increase in friction

TOLERANCES
• Tolerance classes for precision bearings are standardized internationally. (Hybrid bearings are made to the same tolerances as corresponding all-steel bearings.) For those application demands where extreme precision is required, even greater accuracy can be supplied by most major manufacturers. • Even in machine tools that utilize high-precision bearings, the performance objectives of maximum running accuracy, high speeds, and low operating temperatures can only be met if the mating parts and other associated components are made with equal precision. In part, this is because bearing rings are relatively thin-walled and will tend to adapt themselves to the form of the shaft or housing bore in machine tool applications. • Any deformation or variances from specs of the shaft and housing bore seating, therefore, will be transmitted to the raceways of the bearing rings. Resulting angular misalignment of one bearing ring in relation to the other may then cause high operating temperatures, especially where high-speed operation is intended. This can be avoided by machining all parts precisely, including the axial support surfaces for the faces of the bearing rings. • Potential problems can be solved at the outset by taking advantage of the design and engineering expertise offered by experienced bearing manufacturers. • Such professional support can prove invaluable in selecting bearing types and arrangements and in designing customized solutions fitting application requirements. • Whether striving for accuracy, stiffness, speed, load capacity, service life, or a combination, expertise sought at the beginning of the design stage can make all the difference in ultimately satisfying machine tool needs and expectations.

Formula Life of Bearing
base on FAG Standard

C  Lh =   P

p

Lh = life bearing on 106 rotary C = basic radial load ratings P = load on bearing p = exponen : 3 for ball bearing 10/3 for bush

Formula Life of Bearing in hours

10  C  Lh =   60 ⋅ n  P 

6

p

Lh = life bearing in hours n = rotary per minute

Load on bearing (P)

P = x.Fr + y.Fa
Fr Fa X Y = = = = Radial load (KN) Axial load (KN) Axial factor radial factor

Table of Deep Groove Ball Bearing
Fa C0
0.025 0.04 0.07 0.13 0.25 0.5 Normal Bearing Clearance e x 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44 1 1 1 1 1 1
Fa ≤e Fr

Bearing Clearance C3 e y 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.31 0.33 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.54 x 1 1 1 1 1 1
Fa ≤e Fr

Bearing Clearance C4 e y 1.75 1.62 1.46 1.3 1.14 1 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.48 0.53 0.56 x 1 1 1 1 1 1
Fa ≤e Fr

Fa >e Fr

Fa >e Fr

Fa >e Fr

y 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56

y 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46

y 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

y 1.42 1.36 1.27 1.16 1.05 1

Table of Deep Groove Ball Bearing Single Bearing

SERVICE LIFE FOR FAG BEARING
Motor vehicles gear boxes axle drives water pumps clutches wheel bearing Rail bound vehicles haulage trolleys trams passenger coaches freight cars motor coaches locomotives (outer bearing) locomotives (inner bearing) gears f–h e–f c–d c–d d–e d–e d–e c-d g–k h–k k k h–i

Operating conditions and Application of Operating Wear Factor f permissible Fields Conditions wear
5-8 3–6 5–7 5–7 4–6 12 – 15 8 - 12 8 - 12 8 - 12 6 - 10 6 - 10 6 - 10 3-6

v

SERVICE LIFE FOR FAG BEARING
Gear/general engineering universal gears gears motor large-sized gears, stationary Material handling belt drives/open cast mining belt conveyor idlers belt pulleys bucket wheel excavators/drive bucket wheel excavators/ bucket wheel bucket wheel excavators/ bucket wheel drive winding cable sheaves Pump, blowers, compressors small fans and blowers medium-sized fans large fans centrifugal pumps compressors f–h d–f c–d d–f d–f c–d g–k e–f d–f e–g c–e c–d d–e d–e c-d

Operating conditions and Application Fields of Operating Wear Factor f Conditions permissible wear
3–8 3–8 3–8

v

5 – 10 10 – 20 10 – 15 5 – 12 12 – 15 5 – 10 8 – 12

5–8 3-5 3–5 3–5 3–5

SERVICE LIFE FOR FAG BEARING
Electric motors electric motors for household appliances standard motors large motors traction motors Machine tools lathe spindles milling spindles boring spindles grinding spindles workstock spindles machine tool gears presses/flywheel presses/eccentric shaft electric tools pneumatic tools Woodworking machines a–b a–b b–c c–d a–b c–d d–f d–e g–h g–h i–k c–d b–d c-d

Operating conditions and Application of Operating Wear Factor f permissible Fields Conditions wear
3-5 3–5 3–5 3–5

v

0,5 – 1,5 0,5 – 1,5 1–2 0,5 - 1 0,5 – 1 3-8 3-8 3–5 3–8 3–8

SERVICE LIFE FOR FAG BEARING
milling cutter cutter shaft frame saws/main bearing frame saws/con rod bearing e–f e–f e–g c–d

Operating conditions and Application of Operating Wear Factor f permissible Fields Conditions wear
1,5 – 3 1,5 – 3 3–4 2-3

v

SERVICE LIFE FOR FAG BEARING
Crushers, mills, screens etc.

Operating conditions and Application Fields of Operating Wear Factor f permissible wear Conditions
f-g f-g c–d d–e f–g f–g e–f e–g f–g 8 – 12 8 -10 4–6 5–8 12 – 18 3–5 4–6 8 – 12 12 – 18

v

jaw crushers cone crushers, roll crushers beater mills hammer mills, impact mills tube mills vibrating mills vibrating screens briquette presses support rollers (kilns)

Paper making machines and printing machines
paper making machines/wet section paper making machines/dry section paper making machines/refiners paper making machines/calenders Printing machines b–c a–b b–c a–b a–b 7 – 10 10 – 15 5–8 4–8 3–4

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful