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TUTORIAL 2

Axially Loaded Members


Tension members
End Connections
21 Feb 2012

Problem 1: Determine the tension capacity of the angle


section shown. It is connected on the longer leg
75 x 50 x 8 angle ; 16 mm bolts are used.

Solution:
For single angle connected on one leg, the tension capacity is given
( clause 3.10.3; EN 3 part 1-8; Eq. 3.11 )

Assuming S275 grade steel; fu = 430N/mm2


1, )

M2= 1.25, M1 = M0= 1.0

(Table 3.1, EN 3 part 1-

( Section 6.1, EN 3 part 1-1)

Net area of angle connected by one leg allowing for holes


Anet = (h-d0)t + (b-t)t
Anet = (75-18)8 + (50-8)8 = 57x8+42x8 = 792 mm2

Gross area= 941mm2 ( section tables)

Design plastic resistance (clause 6.2.3; EN 3 part 1-1: Eq. 6.6)

Npl.RD= A*fy/ M0 = 941x275/1.0 = 258775 N = 258.78kN.

ANSWER : The smallest value is 132.1kN.

Problem 2:

A FLAT BAR 200 mm wide and 25 mm thick is used a tie. Erection


conditions require that the bar be constructed from two lengths
connected together with a lap splice using M20 bolts. Determine
the tension capacity of bar assuming grade S275 steel.

200 mm

P =100 mm

S= 90 mm 90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

Solution:
For nominal material thickness ( t = 25 mm) of less than or
equal to 40 mm: fy= 275N/mm2 and fu= 430N/mm2 (EN 3

part 1-1, table 3.1)


Partial safety factors : M0 = 1.00 and M2 = 1.25
Gross area: Ag = 200 x 25 = 5000 mm2
For calculating net areas, All possible failure patterns must
be considered to determine the critical case
Hole diameter = bolt diameter + 2 = 22 mm
The different failure patterns are shown:

A B

200 mm

100 mm

A
S=90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

Areas to be deducted:
Path AA :
Path BB :

Area deducted = t x d = 25 x 22 = 550 mm2

s 2t
90 2 8
Areadeducted 2td
2 25 22
594mm 2
4g
4 100

Path BB is critical since the deduction is maximum for it

Therefore :
An = Gross area deduction = 5000 594 = 4406mm2
Tension capacity is determined using:
clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 :and clause. 3.4.2 ; EN 3 part 1-8

Design plastic resistance


Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 5000x275/1 = 1375kN
Design ultimate tensile resistance of the net cross
section (clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1; Eq. 6.7):
Nu,Rd =0.9Anet fu/M2 = 0.9x4406x430/1.25 = 1364kN

ANSWER : Plate capacity ( lowest) = 1364 kN

E.g. 3: Determine the tension capacity of the angle


section shown. It is connected on the longer leg by
welding
weld

75 x 50 x 8 angle ; welds are used.


Weld size is not givenif weld connection is to be checked,
its size has to be given

Solution:
For single angle connected on the longer leg, the effective area =
gross area (clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8)
Gross area = 9.41 cm2 (given)
Net area = gross area = 9.41cm2

Tension capacity is determined using:


clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 and clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8

Assuming : S275 grade steel; fy= 275 N/mm2, fu=430


N/mm2
M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25
Design plastic resistance :

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0
= 941x275/1

=258775N = 258.775kN

Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes


fasteners :
Nu,Rd = 0.9Anet fu/M2
= 0.9x941x430/1.25 = 291333.6N = 291.333 kN

for

E.g. 4: Determine the tension capacity of the double angle section


(2 / 75 x 50 x 8 ) connected to each side of a gusset plate by 12 mm
diameter bolts.

75 x 50 x 8 double angle

Solution:
When angle is connected by the smaller leg, the net are allowing for holes.
Note: For an unequal-leg angle connected by a smaller leg, the net area should
be taken as equal to the net section area of an equivalent equal-leg angle
section with leg size equal to the smaller leg.( clause 3.10.3, EN 3 part 1-8)

A net 2 b d0 t (b t )t 2 (50 14)8 (50 8) 8


A net 2 (288 336) 1248mm2
Gross area = 2 x 9.41cm2 = 1882 mm2

3 D VIEW OF JOINT
Section AA

50 mm

75 mm

75 mm

Tension capacity is determined using:


clause 6.2.3 of EN 1993-1-1 and clause 3.10.3 of EN 1993-1-8
Assuming S275 grade steel; fy= 275 N/mm2 , fu = 430N/mm2
and M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25
Design plastic resistance:
Npl,Rd=Afy/M0 = 1882 x 275/1= 517.55kN
Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes for fasteners:
single rows with 2 bolts (clause 3.10.3 of EN 1993-1-8 , Eq 3.12)
Nu,Rd=2Anet fu/M2 = 0.4 x1248x430/1.25 = 171.72kN
ANSWER : Therefore angle capacity = 171.72 kN

E.g. 5: Determine the tension capacity of the double angle


section (2 / 75 x 50 x 8 ) connected with the smaller leg to each
side of a gusset plate by welds

75 x 50 x 8 double angle

Solution:
For double angle connected on each side of gusset plate, the effective
are is taken as the gross area of an equivalent equal angle section with
leg size equal to the smaller leg

Ae 2 Aq 2 736 1472cm 2

Tension capacity is determined using:


clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 and clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8

Assuming S275 grade steel; fy=275 N/mm2 , fu = 430N/mm2


And M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25
Design plastic resistance :
Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 1472x275/1= 404.8kN
Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes
for fasteners =
Nu,Rd = 0.9Anet fu/M2 = 0.9x1472 x 430/1.25 = 455.73 kN

ANSWER : Therefore angle capacity = 455.73 kN

E.g. 6: An internal member of a truss system is subject to a


tensile force of 260 kN from truss analysis, Py= 275 N/mm2.
Propose a suitable cross section for it if:
(a) the end connections are welded
(b) the end connections are bolted (18 mm diameter bolts)

260kN

STEP 1: Preliminary size of member is obtained by:


Ft = 260 kN ; py = 275 N/mm2
Approximate area needed = Ft / py = 260 x1000/275 =
945.45mm2
Since some area is going to be lost due to holes, designer has to
provide extra area say 10-15% more 945.45 x 1.15 = 1087mm2
Looking at tables choose a suitable angle with area more than
1087mm2
Choosing or trying L 100 x 65 x 7 whose Ag=11.2 cm2

STEP 2: Welded connection


Assume that the longer leg of the section is welded to the gusset
plate. The centroid axis of section is eccentric.

For angle connected to gusset plate by longer leg, the effective


area is taken as the gross area of angle section
Therefore Ae= Ag=11.2 cm2

Tension capacity is determined using clause 6.2.3 of BS EN 1993-11:2005 and clause 3.4.2 of BS EN 1993-1-8:2005

Assuming S275 grade steel; fy=275 N/mm2 , fu=430N/mm2


and M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25

Design plastic resistance, Npl,Rd=Afy/M0 = 1120x275/1=308.00kN

Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes for


fasteners
Nu,Rd=0.9Anet fu/M2 =0.9x1120x430/1.25 = 346.75kN

The angle capacity = 308.00 kN


Since Nt,Rd = 308kN > 260 kN (Nt,Ed) the design is safebut can
be optimised.

STEP 3: Bolted connection

Assume that the longer leg of the section is welded to the gusset plate. The
centroid axis of section is eccentric.

For single angle connected on one leg, the tension capacity is given by the
equation

Assuming: 16 mm diameter bolts; S275 grade steel; fy=275 N/mm2 ,


fu=430N/mm2 and e2 = 33mm, M2= 1.25

Design ultimate resistance: Nu,Rd


= 115.58kN

= 2.0(33-0.5x18)7x430/1.25=115584N

Design plastic resistance: Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 1120x275/1 = 308.00kN

Considering the lower value:


Nt,Rd = 115.58 kN < 260 kN (Nt,Ed), So select a higher section and check.

E.g. 7:(Net area of a bolted universal column section member)


Both flanges of a universal column section member have 22 mm
diameters holes arranged as shown below. If the gross area of the
section is 201x102 mm2 and the flange thickness is 25 mm, determine
the net area Anet of the member which is effective in tension.
Solution:

1) Minimum stagger = (No. of bolts taken x S x bolt dia)0.5

Sm

(4 * 60 * 22) 72.66

72.7 mm > 30 mm = use, s= 30 mm


2) The failure path through each flange is therefore staggered, and by
inspection, it includes four holes and two staggers. The net area is
calculated by clause 6.2.2.2(4) EC3 as:

Anet = Ag [No. of stagger x No. of bolt (bolt dia x t)] + No. of


stagger x S2 x t)/ 4 p
= [201*102]- [2*4*(22*25)]+[2*2*302*25)/(4*60)]
= 161*102 mm2

E.g. 8: ( Checking a bolted universal column section member).


Determine the tension resistance of the tension member of above
example assuming it is of S355 steel
Solution:
Tf= 25 mm, fy=345 N/mm2 , fu=490 N/mm2 (EN 10025-2)
Assume M0 =1.0
Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 201*102 * 345/1.0
= 6935 kN
( 6.2.3 (2)a
Anet = 161 *102 mm2

( example 7)

Nu,Rd = 0.9 Anet fu / M2 = 0.9 * 161*102*490/1.1


= 6445 kN (6.2.3(2) b
Tension capacity 6445 kN

E.g. 9: ( Checking a bolted universal beam section member)


A 610 x 229 UB 125 tension member of S355 steel is connected
through both flanges by 20 mm bolts (in 22 mm diameter bolt
holes) in four lines, two in each flange as shown in figure. Check
the member for a design tension force of Nt,Ed= 4000 kN
Solution:

Solution:
tf= 19.6 mm , fy = 345 N/mm2 , fu = 490 N/mm2 ( EN 2)
A= 15 900 mm2
Assume M0 =1.0, M2 =1.1
Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 15900 x 345 /1.0 = 5486 kN

Cl 6.2.3 (2)a

Anet = 15900 (4 x 22 x 19.6 ) = 14175 mm2

Cl 6.2.2.2 (3)

Nu,Rd = 0.9 Anet fu / M2= 0.9 x 14175 x 490/ 1.1 = 5683 kN


Cl. 6.2.3 (2)b
Nt,Rd = 5486 kN > 4000 kN (Nt,Ed) Design Safe

E.g. 10: Checking an eccentrically connected single ( unequal


angle)
A tension member consists of a 150 x 75 x 10 single unequal angle
whose ends are connected to gusset plates through the larger leg by a
single row of four 22 mm bolts in 24 mm holes at 60 mm centres. Check
the member for a design tension force of Nt,Ed= 340 kN, if the angle is of
S355 steel and has a gross area of 21.7 cm2 use method of EC 3 -1-8
3.10.3(2)

Solution:
T = 10 mm, fy= 355 N/mm2, fu= 490 N/mm2
Ag= 2170 mm2
Assume M0 =1.0, M2 =1.1

(EN 2)

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 2170 x 355 / 1.0 = 770.4 kN Cl. 6.2.3 (2)a


Anet= 2170-(24x10) = 1930 mm2
Using table 3.8 of EN 1:8 page 33:
3= 0.5 ( since pitch p1 = 60 mm = 2.5 d0) EC 3 -1-8 Cl. 3.10.3(2)
Nu,Rd = 3 Anet fu / M2 6.2.3(2)b
= 0.5 x 1930 x 490 /1.1 = 429.9 kN
Nt,RD = 429.9 kN > 340kN (Nt,Ed)
Design is Safe.

6.2.3 (2)

E.g. 11: An angle in tension connected by one leg. A 100x65x6


mm single angle tie is connected through the smaller leg by two
20 mm diameter bolts in line with a pitch of 2.5 d0. Determine the
design ultimate resistance of the angle assuming S275 steel and
material factors of M2 = 1.25 and M0= 1
Solution:
1-Net area of angle connected by the smaller leg and allowing for holes
Anet = ( b- d0) t + (b-t)t = (65-22) x 6 + (65-6) x 6 = 612 mm2
Compare this value with gross area = 1120 mm2 ( section tables)

2) Design ultimate tensile resistance of the net cross-section for a two


bolt angle connection eq. 6.7 EN 1-1:
Using table 3.8 of EN 1:8 page 33:
2 = 0.4 ( since pitch p1 = 60 mm = 2.5 d0) EC 3 -1-8 Cl. 3.10.3(2)
Nu,Rd = 2 Anet fu / M2 = 0.4 x 612 x 430 / 1.25 = 84.24kN
Npl,Rd = Afy/ M0 = [(65 x 6)+(65-6)x6] x275 / 1.0) = 204.6 kN
Note: a check is must for strength of bolts