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Steel Design

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Tension members

End Connections

21 Feb 2012

section shown. It is connected on the longer leg

75 x 50 x 8 angle ; 16 mm bolts are used.

Solution:

For single angle connected on one leg, the tension capacity is given

( clause 3.10.3; EN 3 part 1-8; Eq. 3.11 )

1, )

Anet = (h-d0)t + (b-t)t

Anet = (75-18)8 + (50-8)8 = 57x8+42x8 = 792 mm2

Problem 2:

conditions require that the bar be constructed from two lengths

connected together with a lap splice using M20 bolts. Determine

the tension capacity of bar assuming grade S275 steel.

200 mm

P =100 mm

S= 90 mm 90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

Solution:

For nominal material thickness ( t = 25 mm) of less than or

equal to 40 mm: fy= 275N/mm2 and fu= 430N/mm2 (EN 3

Partial safety factors : M0 = 1.00 and M2 = 1.25

Gross area: Ag = 200 x 25 = 5000 mm2

For calculating net areas, All possible failure patterns must

be considered to determine the critical case

Hole diameter = bolt diameter + 2 = 22 mm

The different failure patterns are shown:

A B

200 mm

100 mm

A

S=90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

90 mm

Areas to be deducted:

Path AA :

Path BB :

s 2t

90 2 8

Areadeducted 2td

2 25 22

594mm 2

4g

4 100

Therefore :

An = Gross area deduction = 5000 594 = 4406mm2

Tension capacity is determined using:

clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 :and clause. 3.4.2 ; EN 3 part 1-8

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 5000x275/1 = 1375kN

Design ultimate tensile resistance of the net cross

section (clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1; Eq. 6.7):

Nu,Rd =0.9Anet fu/M2 = 0.9x4406x430/1.25 = 1364kN

section shown. It is connected on the longer leg by

welding

weld

Weld size is not givenif weld connection is to be checked,

its size has to be given

Solution:

For single angle connected on the longer leg, the effective area =

gross area (clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8)

Gross area = 9.41 cm2 (given)

Net area = gross area = 9.41cm2

clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 and clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8

N/mm2

M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25

Design plastic resistance :

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0

= 941x275/1

=258775N = 258.775kN

fasteners :

Nu,Rd = 0.9Anet fu/M2

= 0.9x941x430/1.25 = 291333.6N = 291.333 kN

for

(2 / 75 x 50 x 8 ) connected to each side of a gusset plate by 12 mm

diameter bolts.

75 x 50 x 8 double angle

Solution:

When angle is connected by the smaller leg, the net are allowing for holes.

Note: For an unequal-leg angle connected by a smaller leg, the net area should

be taken as equal to the net section area of an equivalent equal-leg angle

section with leg size equal to the smaller leg.( clause 3.10.3, EN 3 part 1-8)

A net 2 (288 336) 1248mm2

Gross area = 2 x 9.41cm2 = 1882 mm2

3 D VIEW OF JOINT

Section AA

50 mm

75 mm

75 mm

clause 6.2.3 of EN 1993-1-1 and clause 3.10.3 of EN 1993-1-8

Assuming S275 grade steel; fy= 275 N/mm2 , fu = 430N/mm2

and M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25

Design plastic resistance:

Npl,Rd=Afy/M0 = 1882 x 275/1= 517.55kN

Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes for fasteners:

single rows with 2 bolts (clause 3.10.3 of EN 1993-1-8 , Eq 3.12)

Nu,Rd=2Anet fu/M2 = 0.4 x1248x430/1.25 = 171.72kN

ANSWER : Therefore angle capacity = 171.72 kN

section (2 / 75 x 50 x 8 ) connected with the smaller leg to each

side of a gusset plate by welds

75 x 50 x 8 double angle

Solution:

For double angle connected on each side of gusset plate, the effective

are is taken as the gross area of an equivalent equal angle section with

leg size equal to the smaller leg

Ae 2 Aq 2 736 1472cm 2

clause. 6.2.3 ; EN 3 part 1-1 and clause 4.13; EN 3 part 1-8

And M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25

Design plastic resistance :

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 1472x275/1= 404.8kN

Design ultimate resistance of the net cross section at holes

for fasteners =

Nu,Rd = 0.9Anet fu/M2 = 0.9x1472 x 430/1.25 = 455.73 kN

tensile force of 260 kN from truss analysis, Py= 275 N/mm2.

Propose a suitable cross section for it if:

(a) the end connections are welded

(b) the end connections are bolted (18 mm diameter bolts)

260kN

Ft = 260 kN ; py = 275 N/mm2

Approximate area needed = Ft / py = 260 x1000/275 =

945.45mm2

Since some area is going to be lost due to holes, designer has to

provide extra area say 10-15% more 945.45 x 1.15 = 1087mm2

Looking at tables choose a suitable angle with area more than

1087mm2

Choosing or trying L 100 x 65 x 7 whose Ag=11.2 cm2

Assume that the longer leg of the section is welded to the gusset

plate. The centroid axis of section is eccentric.

area is taken as the gross area of angle section

Therefore Ae= Ag=11.2 cm2

Tension capacity is determined using clause 6.2.3 of BS EN 1993-11:2005 and clause 3.4.2 of BS EN 1993-1-8:2005

and M0 =1.0 and M2 =1.25

fasteners

Nu,Rd=0.9Anet fu/M2 =0.9x1120x430/1.25 = 346.75kN

Since Nt,Rd = 308kN > 260 kN (Nt,Ed) the design is safebut can

be optimised.

Assume that the longer leg of the section is welded to the gusset plate. The

centroid axis of section is eccentric.

For single angle connected on one leg, the tension capacity is given by the

equation

fu=430N/mm2 and e2 = 33mm, M2= 1.25

= 115.58kN

= 2.0(33-0.5x18)7x430/1.25=115584N

Nt,Rd = 115.58 kN < 260 kN (Nt,Ed), So select a higher section and check.

Both flanges of a universal column section member have 22 mm

diameters holes arranged as shown below. If the gross area of the

section is 201x102 mm2 and the flange thickness is 25 mm, determine

the net area Anet of the member which is effective in tension.

Solution:

Sm

(4 * 60 * 22) 72.66

2) The failure path through each flange is therefore staggered, and by

inspection, it includes four holes and two staggers. The net area is

calculated by clause 6.2.2.2(4) EC3 as:

stagger x S2 x t)/ 4 p

= [201*102]- [2*4*(22*25)]+[2*2*302*25)/(4*60)]

= 161*102 mm2

Determine the tension resistance of the tension member of above

example assuming it is of S355 steel

Solution:

Tf= 25 mm, fy=345 N/mm2 , fu=490 N/mm2 (EN 10025-2)

Assume M0 =1.0

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 201*102 * 345/1.0

= 6935 kN

( 6.2.3 (2)a

Anet = 161 *102 mm2

( example 7)

= 6445 kN (6.2.3(2) b

Tension capacity 6445 kN

A 610 x 229 UB 125 tension member of S355 steel is connected

through both flanges by 20 mm bolts (in 22 mm diameter bolt

holes) in four lines, two in each flange as shown in figure. Check

the member for a design tension force of Nt,Ed= 4000 kN

Solution:

Solution:

tf= 19.6 mm , fy = 345 N/mm2 , fu = 490 N/mm2 ( EN 2)

A= 15 900 mm2

Assume M0 =1.0, M2 =1.1

Npl,Rd = Afy/M0 = 15900 x 345 /1.0 = 5486 kN

Cl 6.2.3 (2)a

Cl 6.2.2.2 (3)

Cl. 6.2.3 (2)b

Nt,Rd = 5486 kN > 4000 kN (Nt,Ed) Design Safe

angle)

A tension member consists of a 150 x 75 x 10 single unequal angle

whose ends are connected to gusset plates through the larger leg by a

single row of four 22 mm bolts in 24 mm holes at 60 mm centres. Check

the member for a design tension force of Nt,Ed= 340 kN, if the angle is of

S355 steel and has a gross area of 21.7 cm2 use method of EC 3 -1-8

3.10.3(2)

Solution:

T = 10 mm, fy= 355 N/mm2, fu= 490 N/mm2

Ag= 2170 mm2

Assume M0 =1.0, M2 =1.1

(EN 2)

Anet= 2170-(24x10) = 1930 mm2

Using table 3.8 of EN 1:8 page 33:

3= 0.5 ( since pitch p1 = 60 mm = 2.5 d0) EC 3 -1-8 Cl. 3.10.3(2)

Nu,Rd = 3 Anet fu / M2 6.2.3(2)b

= 0.5 x 1930 x 490 /1.1 = 429.9 kN

Nt,RD = 429.9 kN > 340kN (Nt,Ed)

Design is Safe.

6.2.3 (2)

mm single angle tie is connected through the smaller leg by two

20 mm diameter bolts in line with a pitch of 2.5 d0. Determine the

design ultimate resistance of the angle assuming S275 steel and

material factors of M2 = 1.25 and M0= 1

Solution:

1-Net area of angle connected by the smaller leg and allowing for holes

Anet = ( b- d0) t + (b-t)t = (65-22) x 6 + (65-6) x 6 = 612 mm2

Compare this value with gross area = 1120 mm2 ( section tables)

bolt angle connection eq. 6.7 EN 1-1:

Using table 3.8 of EN 1:8 page 33:

2 = 0.4 ( since pitch p1 = 60 mm = 2.5 d0) EC 3 -1-8 Cl. 3.10.3(2)

Nu,Rd = 2 Anet fu / M2 = 0.4 x 612 x 430 / 1.25 = 84.24kN

Npl,Rd = Afy/ M0 = [(65 x 6)+(65-6)x6] x275 / 1.0) = 204.6 kN

Note: a check is must for strength of bolts

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