# A researcher finds that students who attend fewer

classes in the school get poor marks. What type of
correlation is this?
Hint – Types
As the number of absence from the class increases,
the grades decline. The variables are changing in the
opposite direction. Thus, it is a case of negative
correlation.
Explanation
If there is a positive correlation between the two
variables X and Y, what happens to the value of variable
Y if the value of variable X is increasing?
Hint – Movement
If the value of X is increasing, the value of Y will also
increase as there is a positive relation between
variables X and Y.
Explanation
Shyam after doing a survey comes to the conclusion
that the correlation coefficient between infant mortality
and nutrition intake is –1.2. Comment on the statement.
Hint – Properties
The statement that the negative correlation exist between
the two is correct but it is not true to say that the value lies
between -1.2 because the value of correlation of coefficient
(r) always lies between –1 to +1 (– 1 < r < + 1).
Explanation
Positive correlation can be of various degrees. Is
there any difference between perfect positive
correlation and positive correlation? If yes, how?
Hint – Proportionate change
When there is a proportionate change in the variables
in same direction it is called perfect positive
correlation, whereas when the change in the variables
is in the same direction but in different proportion it is
called positive correlation.
Y
O
X
Y
X
O
Explanation
Perfect positive correlation
Positive correlation
In an internal exam, 5 students scored the following
marks in mathematics and economics. Interpret the
result.
Hint – Spearman’s correlation
Mathematics 90 80 70 60 50
Economics 90 70 80 60 50
Here, N = 5
Spearman’s rank correlation
2
3
6 D
= 1 -
N N
k
r
¿
÷
Mathematics Rank

Economics Rank

D

D
2

90
80
70
60
50
1
2
3
4
5
90
70
80
60
50
1
3
2
4
5
0
-1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
2 D =
¿
Explanation
The following table gives two kinds of assessment
(internal and external) of 10 students’ performance in
class XII. Does the internal test effect the result of
external exam in any way? Find out with the help of
relative performance of students in both the exams.
Hint – Rank correlation
Internal
Test
45 62 67 32 12 38 47 67 42 85
External
Test
39 48 65 32 20 35 45 77 30 62
2 3
1 1
3
3
3
1
12
1
2 2
12
10 10
6 D (m m )
= 1 -
N N
,
6 10.5 ( )
= 1 -
k
k
r
Here
m number of itemsof equal ranks
N Number of items
r
(
¿ + ÷
(
¸ ¸
÷
=
=
(
+ ÷
(
¸ ¸
÷
| |
1
6
12
1000 10
11
990
66
1
990
1 06
94
6 10.5 ( )
= 1 -
6
= 1 -
.
.
k
r
(
+
(
¸ ¸
÷
= ÷
= ÷
=
Strong positive correlation shows that those who have scored
better in internal test have scored good in external test also.
Therefore, the school should give emphasis on internal test for
better performance in external exam.
On a trial basis, a farmer started using organic fertilizer
in his field to know its effects on productivity. The
following data shows the use of organic fertilizer and
the productivity for different years. What type of
correlation exist between the two?
Hint – Relationship
Organic fertilizer
(quintal)
15 18 20 24 30 35 40
Production
(quintal)
85 93 95 105 120 130 150
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
14 43
1377
7
14 43
546 3519
7 7
.

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
dx dy
dx dy
N
r
dx dy
dx dy
N N
¿ ¿
¿ ÷
=
¿ ¿
¿ ÷ ¿ ÷
×
÷
=
÷ ÷
1291
22 75 57 05
1291
1297 88
99
. .
.
.
=
×
=
=
There is a strong correlation between organic fertilizer
and productivity. He should continue using organic
fertilizer to raise his production.
What kind of relationship do you find between X and Y in
the scatter diagram, if the points of the scatter diagram
are (a) scattered (b) tend to cluster in a straight line
sloping downward (c) tend to cluster around a straight
line sloping upward?
Hint – Types
(a) No correlation: If the points or data plotted on a graph
are scattered, it is a case of no correlation. No
relationship is found between the two variables.

(b) Negative correlation: If the points tend to cluster on a
downward sloping straight line, it is a case of negative
correlation. In negative correlation variables move in
opposite direction. When one variable increases, other
decreases and vice-versa.

(c) Positive correlation: If the points tend to cluster on a
downward sloping straight line, it is a case of positive
correlation. In positive correlation, variables move
together in the same direction.
Explanation
Hint – Methods to measure
correlation
Following table shows marks in Economics and the
average length of time that students spend travelling to
college each morning. Draw an appropriate diagram
and interpret the correlation.
Marks in
Economics
78 70 80 30 55 29 74 64 47 53
Time
(Minutes)
12 35 19 30 30 15 22 10 17 16
(i) The scatter diagram shows that
there is no correlation between the
time taken to travel to college and
the marks in Economics.

(ii) We cannot predict the marks of
any student based on how long it
takes him to get to college.
M
a
r
k
s

O
Time
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
5 10 15 20 25
30 35
Explanation
After doing a survey, Mahesh told his teacher that
students who are more often absent show poor
performance in the class.
He asked the teacher the reason behind this kind of
correlation.
Hint – Degree of relationship
His teacher wants to convey that correlation should never
be interpreted as cause and effect relation.
For example, there exist a relation when we say that the
students who attend less classes get poor marks. But
sometimes we see that a student who is not highly
motivated may also be absent more often.
Thus, correlation measures only degree and intensity of
relationship and not causation.
Explanation