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By-Ar. Minal Palve


The following stages are necessary to be studied as:
1. Sources: Sources of water
2. Quantity: Demand of water
3. Quality : Treatment of water
4. Distribution system: For towns
5. Distribution system: For building
6. Storage: Storage tanks
7. Pumps
8. Pipes
9. Valves, water meter , fire hydrants

ources: Sources of water

2. Quantity: Demand of water

Domestic needs: drinking, cooking, bathing, washing, flushing of toilets,
individual air conditioning.
Institutional / Industrial/ Commercial needs
Public purposes like street washing, flushing of sewers, and watering of
public parks.
Fire fighting
Likely wastage amongst all users.

3. Quality : Treatment of water

Physical impurities: turbidity, colour, taste, odour
Chemical impurities: hardness of water
Bacteriological impurities: harmful pathogenic bacteria in water treatment

The stages of water treatment followed are as:

Screening at inlet: large floating matters are removed.
Aeration: enriched by adding oxygen from atmosphere.
Sedimentation: to arrest and remove suspended particles at bottom.
Coagulation: hardness or chemical impurities are removed by adding alum
(colourless astringent compound) or similar chemicals.
Filtration: water is made to pass through different types of filter media
where most of the physical and bacteriological impurities are arrested.
Disinfection: finally water is disinfected before distribution either by adding
chlorine or ozone or passing water through ultra violet rays.

4. Distribution system: For towns

Treated water is distributed through a network system of underground

pipes, pumps and other control, maintenance and safety devices to the
It could be of two types continuous or intermittent (during fixed times
Topography plays important role.
Elevated reservoirs are preferred to distribute water with gravitational
Sub-pumping stations are built in different localities to boost the water

Various methods of water supply distribution systems in a town

adapted are;
1. Gravity system: The source of supply is at a sufficient elevation above
the distribution area (i.e. consumers). So that the desired pressure can be

HGL or

HGL(r= Hydraulic
Grade Line
EGL = Energy Grade
Gravity-Supply System

Advantages of Gravity supply:

No energy costs
Simple operation
Low maintenance costs
No sudden pressure changes


2. Pumping system:
The source of water is lower than the area
The source cannot maintain minimum pressure required.
Pumps are used to develop the necessary head (pressure)

HGL = Hydraulic Grade

EGL = Energy Grade

HGL or


Pumped-Supply System

sadvantages of pumped supply:

omplicated operation
equires maintenance
ependent on reliable power supply

3. Combination of gravity and pumping system:

Both pumps and storage reservoirs are used.
This system is usually used in the following cases:
1. When two sources of water are used to supply water
2. In the pumped system sometimes a storage (elevated) tank is
connected to the system
3. When the source is lower than the consumer area

en two sources of water are used to supply water:








HGL = Hydraulic Grade

EGL = Energy Grade

mped system sometimes a storage (elevated) tank is connected to the

When the water consumption is low, the residual water is pumped to the
When the consumption is high the water flows back to the consumer area
by gravity.
Low consumption

d tank



hen the source is lower than the consumer area:

k is constructed above the highest point in the area.

n the water is pumped from the source to the storage tank (reservoir).

the hence the water is distributed from the reservoir by gravity.





Layout pattern of water supply pipes (main & branches) in a town for evenly
distribution, depend on the topography in a town could be adapted as;
1. Dead end method:
One main supply line is divided into sub-lines (sub mains) and then into
The pipes are laid randomly without following any grid pattern.
This system also known as the tree system.
It has many dead ends so circulation of water is not free flowing.
Economical and easy to maintain but might accumulate stagnated water.
Chances of contamination of water increases due to many dead ends.

2. Grid iron method:

Sub-mains are laid from the main distribution line, which further intercepts
into branches.
The whole layout is in the form of grid.
This pattern promotes free flowing circulation of water.
Due to this pattern the chances of pollution due to stagnation are less.
Water is delivered at every point.
Less head loss.
More cut-off valves are needed for maintenance and incase of fire.
This layout is suitable for well-planned towns and cities.
This system is expensive due to longer lengths of pipes are required.

cular method:

method is reverse of radial method.

the ring of mains is formed around the distribution area.
ing of mains will be in form of rectangle or circle.
he periphery of the mains supply the sub mains are laid.
e are no dead ends.
name derived due to the loop formed in the sub-mains distribution area.

4. Radial method:
In this system the water is pumped from the mains to the reservoirs located
in the centers of different zones.
Water is supplied radially through pipes from these reservoirs.
This is the quick water supply system.
This is the most appropriate system for towns having radial roads.

bution system: For building (Building Distribution system)

At this level, water is conveyed from the street mains to the individual
building, and then to the taps and other fixtures.
The supply from the main line to the individual is made through the house
service connection.
The house service connection consists of two types:
1. Communication pipe: The pipe which runs from the street mains/
municipal distribution/service mains to the boundary of the premises.
2. Supply pipe: the pipe which runs inside the premises is called as supply
pipe/consumers pipe.

vice connections from mains:

Communication pipe
/ service pipes

Supply pipe

Systems of supply:
Water supply from the mains to the building is through one of the following
system depending on the pressure of the water and timings of supply.
Sometimes both the supply systems are used for the supply of water;
1 Direct supply system (upward distribution system)
2 Indirect supply system (down take supply system)

1 Direct supply system (Upward distribution system):

Supply of water is given directly to various floors with required pressure for
sufficient hours.
This is only useful for the building which is not more than two floors.
Separate connections to be provided for domestic and non-domestic

2 Indirect supply system (Down take supply system):

Used generally when the pressure in the mains is not sufficient.
The water is pumped directly to the overhead storage tank and from there
the water is supplied to different floors by gravity.
The water is stored in the underground storage tank and from there water is
pumped to the overhead storage tank and then it is supplied to different
floors by gravity.
Sometimes both the systems are used together.

15 TAP

Water supply network in a building comprises / included of

Tapping of water from the main supply line

Water meter and Non-return valve
Underground storage tank
Pump and Non-return valve
Overhead storage tank
Connection to individual unit (toilet, kitchen)

1 Tapping of water from the main supply line:

There are two types of systems available
a Branch connection: for cement concrete, G.I. (Galvanized Iron), HDPE
(high-density polythene) main pipes.

b Ferrule connection: for cast iron main pipes

Ferrule is provided on main pipe.
Drilling is made at the centre of upper level on the main, a brass ferrule
cock (a T-junction available of 15, 25 mm) is threaded inside.
The pressure of water supply is controlled by the ferrule.
It is made up of brass and bronze.
It has vertical inlet for screwing to the water main and horizontal outlet to
be connected to the service pipe.
It closed by means of washer plate.
The diameter of the ferrule should be less than the communication pipe.
A stop cock is provided at the beginning of the service pipe.
The temporary disconnection is made at the stop cock.
And permanent disconnection is made at the ferrule.

2 Water meter and Non-return valve:

Water meter is installed by the authority to measure the quantity of water
consumed by the user and the water charges are levied on it.
Located at the entry point of the consumer supply line inside the premises.
A non-return valve is provided at the delivery side of the meter for
preventing back flow.
There are two categories according to the working principles;
a Positive displacement type: records the volume of water passed. Four
types are- Rotary type, Oscillating type, Reciprocating type and Disc type.

Velocity meter: two of such types Turbine type, Venture type

There are two types of water meters available- Flanged type and Threaded
Different varieties as per the purpose available Mechanical meter, Electric
Meter, Proxy meter, Electronic meter.

F] Storage: Storage Tank

Water supply in most of the areas is intermittent. To meet the demand of
water supply at peak period and other periods, storage tanks are built.
Both underground storage tanks and overhead reservoirs are necessary to
meet the continuous demand.
Apart from tanks for consumer use, separate storage tanks for fire fighting
are statutory requirements for major and large buildings. Fire storage tanks
are connected and overflow to the main tank.
Three basic aspects of storage tanks are: size (capacity depends on no. of
users and purpose) , location & shape.
Material for storage tanks depend on many factors mainly location,
purpose, etc. The common materials are R.C.C., Mild steel, PVC
The salient features are:
Inlet, overflow pipe with mosquito proof grating, outlets for supply, outlet
drain for cleaning, manholes.
Valves: Scour /washout valve, foot valve, gate/slice valve, air valve,
isolating valve (between main & fire tank), float valve, foot valve in
underground tank.
Water proofing, harmless internal painting, ladder for overhead tank.
Special features: Automatic level indicators.

G] Pumps:
Pumps in water supply system are necessary for sucking and lifting water to
higher level and boosting the pressure in the distribution network.
Pumps are available in various types according to capacity and duty.
The selection for capacity of pump depends on the depth of water on the
suction side and the pumping head on the delivery side as well as the
quantity of water.
Pumps work on energy electricity or diesel.
The components are: casting, internal main part, inlet, outlet, electrical
Working principles: Three basic types:
1 Air lift pumps
2 Centrifugal pumps
3 Displacement pumps

1 Air lift pumps:

Compressed air is used to lift water from deep wells (up to 60m deep)
where water contains mud, silt, debris, highly acidic/alkaline in nature.

2 Centrifugal pumps:
Contain a rotating impeller with blades which impart high velocity to water
to discharge.
They are suitable for high discharge (more quantity), but less efficient for
lifting high.
Widely used for multistage booster pumping in city water supply and also in
multistoried buildings.
Two types are available: volute type and turbine type

3 Displacement pumps:
Works on principle of vacuum suction.
They are suitable for high discharge under high head and also costlier.
Two types are found: reciprocating type and rotary (cam or gear) type.
Other types of pumps :I.

Booster pump: domestic pump used to boost the pressure in the

II. Jet pump: combination of centrifugal and ejector pump.
III. Submersible pump: a type of centrifugal pump, motor is also submerged
in water,
suitable where lowest point of pumping water is beyond the


sification: as per materials of pipes.

ron (C.I.): extensively used for main supply of water.
nt concrete or Hume pipe
nized iron (GI) pipes
er pipes

teel (M.S.)
stos cement (A.C.) pipes

eries: as per materials and ends.

cials: bends, unions, crosses, sockets, caps, flanges, plugs, etc.

es, Water meter and Fire Hydrants:


are the controlling devices in water supply system.

lates the flow of water.
controls the direction of flow.
nt types of valves are available according to materials, purposes, sizes, etc.
components of valves are:

ing / body: made of brass, gun metal, C.I, stainless steel, HDPE (high-density pol
ing part: the spindle: made of gun metal, stainless steel.
ant: acts like gate below spindle for closing or opening.

s of valves:

ne valve:
e are of two types;

uice/gate/stop valve:

mally placed at junctions.

ful for dividing water mains into sections.

ontrols the flow of water and it is useful for low pressure system.

ii. Globe valve:

Normally made up of brass.
Used to control flow of water to wash basins, shower, kitchen sinks, etc. to
shut off water supply completely.
It is useful for high pressure system.

2. Scour valve:
Placed at dead-ends and at lowest point to washout the sand or silt
deposited in the water pipe.
Also known as washout valves.
3. Air valves:
Placed at the highest points in the system to expel the accumulated air in
order to prevent from bursting of pipes.

4. Relief / safety valve:

Located wherever the pressure is maximum, relieves pressure.
Operates automatically.

5. Reflux valve / non-return / check valves:

Placed on the delivery side of the pump to prevent the back flow of water.
Operates automatically.

6. Foot valve:
Placed at the bottom most level of suction side of the pump inside the
storage tank to prevent pumps to run without water when start pumping.
7. Float valves:
Installed in storage tank and flushing cistern at the inlet to shut-off the
supply automatically when the predetermined/required level is reached.

Butterfly valve:
Proxy valve: Placed at urinals, electronic valve operates automatically with
photo sensitive cells.
Flush valve: Placed in WC where flushing cistern are not used.

I] Fire Hydrants:
This is an outlet provided in water pipe for tapping water in case of a fire.
Fire hydrants are placed at all street junctions at regular intervals.
Fire hydrants are of two type;
i. Flush hydrants: These are provided below footpath or street level. These
are covered with cast iron or brick masonry. So these are difficult to
ii. Post hydrants: these are 1 to 2 M projected above ground level. So these
are easily detectable but they are open for damage.

Taps and cocks:

These are of two types;
a. Bib cock
b. Pillar tap
c. Stop cock
a. Bib cock:
It is provided at the end of the water pipe to draw off the water from the
It has horizontal inlet so fixed on water line at vertical surface or walls, used
as bathroom taps, etc.
It is normally a screw down type and opens in an anticlockwise direction.

ar tap:
draw off tap and has a vertical inlet.
on horizontal surface in wash basin.
of these are also a screw down type and opens in an anticlockwise direction.

c. Stop cock:
Stop cocks are used to completely shut-off the flow of water to a fixture.
It is a screw down type and opens in an anticlockwise direction.
This is used to control the flow of water entering the tap.
Fixed before the taps of wash basin, sink, flushing cisterns.
These are of two types;
i. Inlet & outlet on the same direction
ii. Outlet at right angle to inlet also known as angle valve.