Earth’s Tilt and the Seasons
Night follows day. Spring follows winter. The changes of night and day, as well as the seasons, occur because of the ways Earth moves. Earth moves in two ways. Earth rotates, or spins, on its axis. An axis is an imaginary line throught both poles. It takes about 24 hours for Earth to completeley rotates on its axis.

As Earth revolves around the sun, part of it is tilted toward the sun. That part of Earth takes in more energy from the sun. This energy is in the form of heat. The part of Earth that is tilted away from the sun takes in less energy from the sun.

During June, July and August, the Northern Hemisphere of Earth is tilted toward the sun and the Southern Hemisphereis tilted away. The sun’s rays shine more directly on the Northern Hemisphere, which has summer, than on the Southern Hemisphere, which has a winter. As Earth continues its orbit, the Northrn Hemisphere is tilted away from the su, causing winter. The southern Hemisphere is tilted toward it causing summer. This cycle continues as Earth orbits the sun

You don’t have to be an astronaut to see the moon’s surface up close. You could use a telescope. A telescope is a tool that makes distant objects look larger. A refracting telescope uses a curved piece of glass, called a lens, to bend light. This makes a distant object seem larger. In 1609, an italian astronomer named Gaslileo Galilei was te first perso to use this kind of telescope to look at the moon.

In 1668 another scientist, Isaac Newton, invented the reflecting telescope. This type of telescope uses mirrors to reflect light and make an object seem larger. In 1990 the Hubble Space Telescope was launched. It is a reflecting telescope that orbits Earth. It can take clear pictures of bjects in our solar system and beyond.


It is a satellite of the Earth because it orbits our planet. It looks like a shining disk in the night sky, but close, it looks rok and with dusty surface. There is no water and very little ice, there are mountains and valleys, flat areas and hills. It has no atmosphere. When rocks enter Earth’s atmosphere, they often burn up anc create lots of craters

Moon Phases
The moon seems to shine, but the lighty yu see is actually reflected light from the sun. As it revolves around Earth, different amounts of its lit surface can be seen. That is why the moon seems to have different sizes or shapes. The phases of the moon follow the same pattern about every 29 ½ days. When all its lit side is shown, we called Full Moon. When we see none of its lit side, we call it New Moon

Full Moon

New Moon

First Quarter

Third Quarter

We use callendars to divide time into days, months, and years. All of thsese units of time are based on the movements of Earth. A solar year is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45 ½ seconds long. This is the time Earth makes a complete orbit around the sun. Today’s calendars have only 365 days, so every four years, and extra day is added in February. Years with an extra day are called LEAP YEARS.