Data Communication Short Lecture Note

Prepared By Abdul Wahid

Course outline Chapter 1Over View of Data Communication An introduction to what kind of technologies are available Components of data communication Data Presentation Types of connection Topologies Chapter 2Network Models OSI Model Seven Layers of the OSI model Addressing Chapter 3Data & Signals Period & Frequency Bandwidth Chapter 4Transmission Media Wireless Transmission Waves Chapter 5Switching manageable & unmanageable switch Chapter 6Wireless & wired LANs Chapter 7Routing

INTRODUCTION: Data communication and networking are changing the way we do business and the way we live. Business decisions have to be made ever more quickly and the decision makers require immediate access to accurate information. Simply we can say Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission such as a wire cable. The effectiveness of a data communications system depends on four fundamental character: delivery, accuracy, timeliness and Jitter. The fundamental Characteristic for the effectiveness of data communication 1.Delivery:the system must deliver data to the correct destination data must be received by the intended device or user. 2.Accuracy:the system must deliver that data accurately. 3.Timeliness:the system must deliver that data in a timely manner, data delivered late is useless. This kind of delivery is called real-time transmission. 4.Jitter:Jitter refers to the difference in the packets arrival time. It is the uneven delay in the delivery of audio or video packets.

Chapter 1 Components of Data communication Data communalization have four components 1.Message:The message is the information (data) to be communicate. Exp Picture, Audio & Video 2.Sender:The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be computer, telephone handset, video camera & so on. 3.Receiver:The receiver is the device that gets the message. It can be a computer, telephone handset, television & so on. 4.Transmission Medium:The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial Cable Fiber-optic cable and radio waves Data Presentation Information today comes in different forms such as text, number,images, audio and video. Text: in data communication text is represented as a bit pattern , a sequence of bits. Number: numbers are also represented by bit patterns

Images: Images are also represented by a bit pattern an image is composed of a matrix of pixels (picture elements) where each pixel is a small dot. Audio: Audio refers to the recording or broadcasting of sound or music.Audio is by nature different from text, number or image. We uses microphone to change Video it refers to recording or broadcasting of a picture or movies. Types of connection A network is two or more devices connected through links. A linkis a communications pathway that transfers data from one device to another. For visualization purposes, it is simplest to imagine any link as a line drawn between two points. For communication to occur, two devices must be connected in some way to the same link at the same time. There are two possible types of connections: Point-to-point & Point-to-Multipoint 1.Point-to-Point: provides a dedicated link between two devices. The entire capacity of the link is reserved for transmission between these two devices. Most point-to-point connections use and actual length of wire or cable to connect the two ends. But also other option,such as VSAT and Microwave links are also possible.

2.Point-to-Multipoint: Is one in which more than two specific devices share a single link. In a multipoint environment, the capacity of the channel is shared, either spatially or temporally. Types of connections: P2P & (PMP)


SUMMARY of Chapter One Data communication are the transfer of data from one device to another via some form of transmission medium. A data communications system must transmit data to the correct destination in an accurate and timely manner. The Four components that make up a data communications system are the message, sender, receiver & medium. Text, number, image, audio and video are different forms of information. A network is set of communication devices connected by media links. In a point-to-point connection, two and only two devices are connected by a dedicated link. In a multipoint connection, three or more devices share a link. Topology refers to the physical or logical arrangement of a network. Devices may be arranged in a mesh, star, bus, or ring topology. A network can be categories as a local network or wide area network. A LAN is a data communication system within a building, campus, or near by building. A WAN is a data communication system within a countries, or whole world. An Internet is network of networks. The Internet is a collection of many separate network.