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INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR NETWORK

Radio network scattered over land areas called cell


Cellular Base Station
Mobile Telephone Swithing Ofiice
Mobile Communication Device
Base station: radio communication to mobile units located in cell.
Mobile telephone switching offices (MTSO): The MTSO monitors the quality and controls
over incoming and outgoing calls
Mobile communication devices: The mobile communication devices consist of hand held
phones, car phones, notebook computers, Lap-top
computers, and portable data collection devices

Foot Print of cell showing overlap and gaps

Fig:1.2 Typical cellular network

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT IN CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY


The radio spectrum contains many bands that are allocated and used for commercial
Freequency Reuse
Three cells forming a cluster.

Seven cells forming a cluster.

Fixed Freequency Assignment


- one frequency is alloted
Assigned Freequency Assignment
- Borrwed from other freequency

Handoff Process

Freequency Reuse

Overview

Radio Propagation Effects

Open-loop power control


(Depends only on base station)
Closed-loop power control:
(Purely based on Signal strength)

Traffic Engineering:
A= /\h
Avg No of Calls
Mean rate
Holding Call

GSM
GSM was formally known as Group Special Mobile
(found in1982)
Global System for mobile communications. (Standard
Format)
Replacement for first generation (1G)
SERVICES
Bearer Service
Tele Service
Supplementary Service

Reference Model
bearer serviceordata serviceis a service that
allowstransmissionofinformationsignals between
network interfaces

Bearer Service
TRANSPARENT BEARER SERVICE (transmits
through Physical Layer)
NON TRANSPARENT BEARER SERVICES: (data link
and network to
transmit data)

Tele Services
all the 7 layers of ISO/OSI reference model
Voice oriented tele service.
Telephony services
Emergency Number
Short Message Service (160 Charecters)
Enhanced Message Service (760)
Multimedia Message Service
fax

SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES:
User Identification
Call Redirecting / Forwarding
Closed User Group
Multiparty communication

GSM ARCHITECTURE
The Radio Subsystems(RSS)
Network and Switching Subsystems(NSS)
Operation Subsystem(OSS)

HOME LOCATION REGISTER :


(HLR)
Home Location Register
(User Relevant Information)
Static = Mobile subscriber identity
Dynamic=Mobile subscriber roaming number
=Usage of the information

VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER:


(VLR)
Information needed for the MS

GMSC
Gate way mobile switching centre
Handles call outside the particular mobile
network

IWF
Inter Working Function
The IWF converts the data transmitted
over the air
interface into a format suitable for the
PSTN.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE


CENTER (OMC):
traffic monitoring,
status reports of network entities,
subscriber and security management,
accounting and billing.

EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER


(EIR):
IMEI,s in phones
Stores all device identifications registered for this
network

GSM PROTOCOL SUITES :


Layer
Layer
Layer
Layer

1 (Physical Layer)
2(Data Link Layer)
3(Network Layer)/Mobility Management
4(Call Management)

GSM PROTOCOL FORMAT:

Layer 1 (Physical Layer)


Layer 2(Data Link Layer)
Layer 3(Network
Layer)/Mobility
Management
Layer 4(Call Management)

Physical Layer

Works on Mobile station


Radio Specific function
Air interface (U)

CC = Call Management
MM = Mobility Management
RR = Radio Resource Management(
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (
W-CDMA)
LAPD = Link Access Procedures Channel D
channel
(Checks messages are error free)
Delta Channel or ISDN Channel

Data Link Layer

Works on Base station


Reliable data transfer
Reseqeuncing of data
Flow control

RR = Inverse Radio Resource Management(


Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (
W-CDMA)
LAPD = Link Access Procedures Channel D channel
(Checks messages are error free)
Delta Channel or ISDN Channel
BSTM = Base Tranciever Station Mgmt (Series of Data or
Information)
PCM = Pulse Code Modulation
(Digitally represent sampled analog signal)

BSSAP = Base Station System Application Part


communicate with each other using signalling messages
supported by theMTP
resource managementandhandovercontrol.
SS7 = Signalling System 7----- tear up/down PSTN
Telephony Signalling Protocol (1975)
Digits dialled
Billing of call
In America pronounced as CCSS7

Connection Establishment

Message Oriented Call

MESSAGE FLOW FOR MTC AND


MOC

FREQUENCY ALLOCATION:

ROUTING :

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT:
Track subscribers,
allowing calls,
SMS
Other mobile phone services

TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)


Randomly assigned identity
Based on location area
ROAMING
Handles outside coverage area
LOCATION AREA
"location area code" is assigned.

Routing Area
"Routing Area Update
TRACKING AREA
Tracking areas (TA lists)
Handover

Handover
(1)INTRA CELL HANDOVER:
(2) INTER CELL or INTRA BSC HANDOVER:
(3) INTER BSC, INTRA MSC HANDOVER:
(4) INTER MSC HANDOVER:

INTRA CELL HANDOVER:


MS switches Channel

INTER CELL, INTRA BSC


HANDOVER:

INTER BSC, INTRA MSC


HANDOVER:

INTER MSC HANDOVER:

SECURITY IN GSM:
(Authentication)

Algorithm Used
A3
Authentication Algorithm

Authentication
(Challenge Response Mechanism)
SIM(Subscriber Identity Module
Every SIM has anauthentication key Ki,
ki = IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber
Identity)

Confidentiality
Safe and secure travel

Anonymity
Unknown Structure

Encryption

A8 = Generate Ciphertext
A5 = Encryption/Decryption

GPRS (General Packet Radio


Service)
Defined for 2G cellular
56114 kbit/second

GPRS Services
PTM (Point to Point)
PTM(Point to Multipoint)

GPRS Terminal Classes


Class A
send or receive data and voice at the same time
Class B
data at one time
voice at one time..but only one tranciever
Class C
manage either only packet data or only voice
manually done

GPRS Architecture

Components
GPRS n/w element
-Gateway GPRS Support Node(GGSN)
interworking between the GPRS network and external
packet switched networks

-Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)


mobility management
authentication of the users.

Circuit switching

Packet switching

GPRS Protocol Suits

Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission

Protocol
Protocol
Protocol
Protocol

Layer
Layer
Layer
Layer

in
in
in
in

Um interface
Gb interface
Gn interface
Gi interface

X25----- Supports Packet switching n/w


SNDCP---Subnetwork dependent convergence protocol (SNDCP)
(Transfer data packets between SGSN and MS.)
LLC---Logical Link Control
A secure and reliable logical link between the MS and the SGSN
RLC--Radio Link
establishes a reliable radio link
MAC--Medium Acess control
Responsible for moving data packets

BSSGP -(Base station subsystem GPRS protocol)


Information betweenSGSNandBSS
Quality of Service
routing information
It does not carry out any form of
error correction.
FR --(Frame Relay)
the physical and data link layers
one site to many remote sites

GTP ---(GPRS tunneling protocol)


backbone between GPRS Support Nodes
(GSNs).
uses TCP and UDP
L1/L2--
X.25---Special type of Packet Switched protocol