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UNIT-4

A time-division multiplex (TDM) system


LECTURE-25
enables
the joint utilization of a common

communication channel
by a plurality
of
Time-Division
Multiplexing
(1/2)

independent message sources without mutual


interference among them

Time-Division Multiplexing
(2/2)

A commutator is usually implemented using


electronic switching circuitry
The purpose of a pulse modulator is to
transform the multiplexed signal into a form
suitable for transmission over the common
channel
Accurate equalization of both magnitude and
phase responses of the channel is necessary to
ensure a satisfactory operation of the system
TDM is immune to cross-talk
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LECTURE-26
Synchronization (1/1)

The receiver requires a local clock to keep the


same time as a distant standard clock at the
transmitter
One possible procedure to synchronize the
transmitter and receiver clocks is to set aside a
code element or pulse at the end of a frame
An example receiver includes a circuit that would
search for the pattern of 1s and 0s alternating at
half the frame rate, and thereby establish
synchronization between the transmitter and
receiver
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The T1 System (1/3)

The T1 system carries 24 voice channels over


separate pairs of wires with regenerative
repeaters spaced at approximately 2-km intervals
The T1 carrier system is basic to the North
American Digital Switching Hierarchy
A voice signal is essentially limited to a band from
300 to 3100 Hz
It is customary to pass the voice signal through a
low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of about
3.1 kHz prior to sampling
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The T1 System (2/3)

The filtered voice signal is usually sampled at


8 kHz, which is the standard sampling rate in
telephone systems

The T1 System (3/3)

Each T1 frame consists of a total of 193 bits.


The duration of each bit equals 0.647 s, and
the resulting transmission rate is 1.544 Mbps

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Digital Multiplexers (1/7)

A digital multiplexer may enable us to combine


several digital signals, such as computer
outputs, digitized voice signals, digitized
facsimile, and television signals, into a single
data stream (at a considerably higher bit rate
than any of the inputs)

Digital Multiplexers (2/7)

An incoming bit stream at 64 kbps,


irrespective of its origin, is called a digital
signal zero (DS0)
In the United States, Canada, and Japan the
hierarchy follows the North American digital
TDM hierarchy
The first-level hierarchy combines twenty-four
DS0 bit streams to obtain a digital signal one
(DS1) at 1.544 Mbps. Notice 24*64
kbps=1.536 Mbps. This bit streams are called
the primary rate in the digital hierarchy
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Digital Multiplexers (3/7)

The second-level multiplexer combines four


DS1 bit streams to obtain a digital signal two
(DS2) at 6.312 Mbps. Notice 4*1.544
Mbps=6.176 Mbps.
The third-level multiplexer combines seven
DS2 bit streams to obtain a digital signal three
(DS3) at 44.736 Mbps. Notice 7*6.312
Mbps=44.184 Mbps.
The fourth-level multiplexer combines six DS3
bit streams to obtain a digital signal four (DS4)
at 274.176 Mbps. Notice 6*44.736
Mbps=268.416 Mbps.
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Digital Multiplexers (4/7)

The fifth-level multiplexer combines two DS4


bit streams to obtain digital signal five (DS5)
at 560.160 Mbps. Notice 2*274.176
Mbps=548.352 Mbps.
The bit rate of a digital signal produced by any
one these multiplexers is slightly higher than
the prescribed multiple of the incoming bit
rates because of bit stuffing built into the
design of each multiplexer

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Digital Multiplexers (5/7)

Problems involved in the design of a digital


multiplexer
Bit rate of each signal is not locked to a
common clock
The multiplexed signal must include some
form of framing so that its individual
components can be identified at the receiver
The multiplexer has to handle small
variations in the bit rates of the incoming
digital signals
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Digital Multiplexers (6/7)

Example 3.3 AT&T M12 Multiplexer


Which is designed to combine four DS1 bit
streams into one DS2 bit stream

Figure 3.21
Signal format of AT&T M12 multiplexer.

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Digital Multiplexers (7/7)

Each frame is subdivided into four subframes.


The first subframe (first line in Fig. 3.21) is
transmitted, then the second, the third, and
the fourth, in that order

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LECTURE-28

PAM/TDM SYSTEM
It is the combination of the
concept of pulse amplitude
modulation and the time
division multiplexing.

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Block Diagram of PAM/TDM

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In this PAM experiment several message


have been sampled, and their samples
interlaced to form a composite, or time
division multiplexed (TDM), signal
(PAM/TDM). You will extract the samples
belonging to individual channels, and
then reconstruct their messages

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Signaling Rate in PAM/TDM

Signaling rate of a TDM system is


defined as the no. of pulses
transmitted per second . it is
represented by( r ) .
r =Nfs (pulses/second).

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BAND WIDTH OF PAM/TAM


B.W.=1/2(signaling rate)

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Advantage

It require some LPF so designing is


simple & less distortion.

Disadvantages

It requires perfect synchronization in


terms of phase & frequency. Extra Pluses
is also transmitted after each frame.
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CROSS TORQUE

Tg= .55/B.W.

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Thank you

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