Chapter 14: Absolutism, Part II Thirty Years¶ War The Glorious Revolution The Sun King

After the defeat of the Armada, Continental Europe is at odds over religion as well.

The Thirty Years¶ War
‡ All major European countries but England became involved. ‡ Takes place on German soil, and Germany was plundered and destroyed for 30 years.

‡ Some countries gained new territories, and France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe.

Destruction of the city of Magdeburg

The Thirty Years¶ War (1618-1648) was a devastating religious war. ³There was nothing but beating and burning, plundering, torture, and murder. Most especially was every one of the enemy bent on securing riches... Thus in a single day this noble and famous city, the pride of the whole country, went up in fire and smoke.´

Reformation & Thirty Years War Video

The Thirty Years¶ War Ends

The Peace of Westphalia 1. German states could determine their own religion. 2. The states that made up the Holy Roman Empire became independent. 3. The Holy Roman Empire died, and Germany would not reunite for 200 years.

The Thirty Years¶ War

The 30 Years¶ War was Europe¶s most destructive.

Flintlock Musket 1. Armies had to be better disciplined and trained. 2. Governments began to support standing armies. 3. By 1700, France had a standing army of 400,000.

Revolutions in England

‡ The 17th century saw England¶s civil war, the English Revolution. ‡ It was a struggle between Parliament & King ‡ James I King of England ‡ Divine right of kings± that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God. ‡ Parliament wanted equal power

Revolutions in England

‡ Parliament made up of mostly Protestants (Puritans)
‡ In 1628, Parliament passed a petition prohibiting passing taxes without Parliament¶s consent.

‡ Civil war broke out in 1642 between supporters of the king and those of Parliament.
Supporters of the 2 Sides King: Cavaliers or Royalists Parliament: Roundheads

Revolutions in England
Roundheads - Parliament Also largely Protestant Cavaliers ± Royalists/King Also largely Catholic
³The Wounded Cavalier´ by William Shakespeare Burton.

The goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration.

John Pettie ± Puritan and Roundhead

Was James I a Cavalier?

VIDEO: The English Under Charles I

Charles I: James I¶s Son

Charles I: Executed by Oliver Cromwell

Video: The English Civil War

Revolutions in England

‡ Oliver Cromwell led the New Model Army

‡ Purged the Parliament of anyone not loyal to him, creating ³Rump Parliament´ ‡ Then Cromwell dispersed the Rump Parliament by force.
‡ Ruled until his death in 1658

English Dictator Oliver Cromwell Dismisses Parliment

English Dictator ± Oliver Cromwell ruled until his death.

The Glorious Revolution

‡ James II ± Catholic King of England ‡ Protestant parliament asks William of Orange, to ³invade´

‡ No bloodshed & Bill of Rights
King Charles I and his son James II

James's nephew and son-in-law, William (painted above), son-inabove), was invited to "save the Protestant religion"

James II, wife and infant son ³flee´ to France

William The Prince of Orange lands at Torbay The event is often called: ³The Glorious Revolution´ Revolution of 1688 War of the English Succession Bloodless Revolution

Group portrait of the Seven Bishops whom James ordered imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1688, but who were acquitted of charges of seditious libel.

Henry Sydney, author of the Invitation to William, William, which was signed by six noblemen (both Whigs and Tories) and one bishop. He has been described as "the great wheel on which the Revolution rolled"

The Glorious Revolution

‡ The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritans, not Catholics, the right of free public worship.
‡ Few English citizens were persecuted for religion ever again, however. ‡ By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the divine right theory of kingship.

What is Absolutism?

Louis XIV
French King
The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of France.

France under Louis XIV

‡ One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek stability by increasing the monarchy¶s power. ‡ This response historians call absolutism, a system in which the ruler has total power.
‡ It also includes the idea of the divine right of kings.

France under Louis XIV (cont.) ‡ Louis had an anti-Huguenot policy, wanting the Huguenots to convert to Catholicism. ‡ Destroyed Huguenot churches and schools. ‡ As many as 200,000 Protestants fled France. ‡ The mercantilist policies of the brilliant Jean-Baptiste Colbert helped Louis with the money he needed for maintaining his court and pursuing his wars.

France under Louis XIV (cont.)

‡ France was debt-ridden and surrounded by enemies at the time of Louis XIV¶s death. ‡ On his deathbed he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more.

Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts.

Versailles ± ³Hall of Mirrors´ ± It was at his great palace, with its gardens, architecture, interior design and works of art, that Louis sought to visually represent the absolute power of the monarchy.

William Shakespeare
English poet and playwrite. Widely regarded as one of the Greatest English writers in history. But, he was never revered in his Lifetime. Although he was given Critical praise. His peak: 1589 - 1613 "All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts...³ As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7, 139±42 **There is no written description of Shakespeare's physical appearance and no evidence that he ever commissioned a portrait

A Golden Age of Literature (cont.)
William Shakespeare ± ³Elizabethan Age´ ‡ Shakespeare¶s works were performed principally at the Globe Theater. ‡ The low admission charge allowed the lower classes to attend, and Shakespeare had to write plays pleasing to all classes and types.

Political Thought
‡ England¶s revolutionary upheavals alarmed Thomas Hobbes. ‡ ³state of nature,´ life is brutal and violent because human nature is self-interested. ‡ Life is not about morals, but self-preservation. ‡ Believed in Absolute Rule ± to save people from themselves

Thomas Hobbes
‡ Life is brutal and violent ‡ People selfinterested ‡ Absolute ruler is needed

Video: 2 Treaties of Government

Political Thought (cont.)

John Locke
‡ Against the absolute rule of one person. ‡ People lived in a state of freedom and equality, not violence and war. ‡ In this state people had natural rights± rights with which people are born.

John Locke
‡ People lived in state of freedom and equality ‡ Against the idea of Absolute rule ‡ People had ³natural rights´ ‡ Ideas found in Declaration of Independence & Constitution in US

Political Thought (cont.)
‡ Locke¶s ideas were important to the American and French Revolutions.
‡ They were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights. ‡ Locke¶s ideas are found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.