Renewable Energy Technologies in Power Generation

An Introduction ppt
- Spark


Introduction Wind Energy Solar Energy


Introduction Wind Energy Solar Energy



Renewable Energy – “any sustainable energy source that comes from natural environment.”

Some Aspects of Renewable Energy
   

It exists perpetually and in abundant in the environment Ready to be harnessed, inexhaustible It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels “energy that is derived from natural process that are replenished constantly” -defined by the RENEWABLE ENERGY WORKING PARTY of the INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY



Contribution of Renewable Energy in World Electricity Production



Major Renewable Energy Sources
        

Hydro Energy Wind Energy Solar Energy Biomass Energy Tidal Energy Geothermal Energy Wave Energy Bio-fuel Bagasse

Present Installed Capacity of Renewable Energy Sources in India Present Installed Capacity 10200 MW 2100 MW 750 MW 620 MW 2 MW Total RE Installed Capacity – 13672 MW
Source: Ministry of New & Renewable Energy Sources (MNRE) 7

Renewable Energy Source Wind Small Hydro Bagasse Biomass Solar

Solar Panels Wind Turbine Generators


Introduction Wind Energy Solar Energy


Wind Energy - Technology

Differential heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by the earth’s rotation and contours of the land and generates WIND. A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades. The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed. PLF of Wind Farm is normally in the range of 20 % to 30% depending upon the site conditions and WTG rating. P = 0.5 X ρ X A X V3

P  Power ρ  Air Density (kg/m3) A  Blade Area -turbine (m2) V  Wind velocity (m/s)


Wind Energy - Technology

Major Components of Wind Turbine


Wind Energy – Present Scenario
 

Wind Power – Fastest growing renewable energy source Globally, it grew at the average rate of 27 % pa over the past 10 years. While in India it grew at the average rate of 33% over the past 9 years. Presently, India is ranked 4th in the world in terms of Wind Energy Installed Capacity Drivers of growth  Environmental Awareness and Sustainable Development  Growing Global Energy Demand  Improving Competitiveness of renewable energy  Security of Supply Concerns  New Markets (e.g. India, China etc)  Carbon Trading  Fiscal Benefits by Govt. (PTC, feed in tariffs, etc)


Introduction Wind Energy Solar Energy


Solar Energy - Technology

Solar power is by far the Earth's most available energy source, easily capable of providing many times the total current energy demand. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Two main commercial ways of conversion of sunlight into electricity.
 

 

Concentrating Solar Thermal Plant (CSP) Photovoltaic Plants (PV)

CSP and PV both have their markets. PV is very successful in decentralized applications, whereas CSP offers advantages for central and large-scale applications. CSP power plants are the most cost-efficient way to generate and to store dispatch able CO2-free electricity. However, there is no competition between both. Rather, they have to be seen as complementary technologies. PLF of CSP – In the range of 20 % to 30 % PLF of PV – In the range of 15 % to 20 %


Solar Energy - Technology

Concentrating Solar Thermal Plant (CSP) It contains;  Collector Field  Turbine  Generator  Cooling Tower  Transformer Courtesy: ESP Solar


Solar Energy - Technology

Solar Photovoltaic Plants (PV) It contains;  Solar Arrays  Inverter  Transformer


Solar Energy - Technology
  

In both CSP and PV technologies, solar resources plays major role. Maps are available to calculate solar resource of a particular region. However, for both CSP and PV technologies different solar radiations are taken into account. Basically two types of solar radiations are there;  Global Horizontal irradiations (GHI)  Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) For PV technologies GHI is considered. GHI consists of diffuse radiations and direct horizontal radiations (beam). Minimum GHI – 1000 kwh/m2 pa For CSP, DNI is considered. DNI is the amount of radiation received by a surface which is permanently aligned perpendicular to the incoming beam. Minimum DNI – 1900 kwh/m2 pa


Solar Energy - Technology
A typical GHI irradiation Map for India which is used to find a feasible site for PV Plant.

A typical DNI irradiation Map for India which is used to find a feasible site for CSP Plant.

Solar Energy – Current Scenario

The total installed capacity of solar power (Both CSP and PV) as of 2008 is 2826 MW.

In India the total installed capacity of solar power is around 2 MW.

In India, various government and private players have entered into CSP and PV markets.

MNRE has set a target to establish at least 50 MW of solar projects during the 11th plan.