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ROTARY ENGINE

Introduction:
A rotary engine is an internal combustion engine, like the engine in

your car, but it works in a completely different way than the
conventional piston engine.

In a piston engine, the same volume of space (the cylinder)

alternately does four different jobs -- intake, compression,
combustion and exhaust. A rotary engine does these same four jobs,
but each one happens in its own part of the housing. It's kind of like
having a dedicated cylinder for each of the four jobs, with the piston
moving continually from one to the next.

The rotary engine (originally conceived and developed by Dr. Felix

Wankel) is sometimes called a Wankel engine, or Wankel rotary
engine.

He received his first patent for the engine in 1929.History: The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel.  Popularity for the rotary powered vehicles increased rapidly until the gas crisis in the mid 70’s  Rotary engines were not very fuel efficient compared to piston engines  Strict emissions standards could not be met with current rotary technology  These two factors severely hurt the sale and development of rotary engines  Mazda was the only car company that continued to produce cars with rotary engines through the 90’s . began development in the early 1950s at NSU and completed a working prototype in 1957. who have continually improved the design.NSU subsequently licensed the design to companies around the world.

respectively. The rotation of each rotor on its own axis is caused and controlled by a pair of synchronizing gears A fixed gear mounted on one side of the rotor housing engages a ring gear attached to the rotor and ensures the rotor moves exactly 1/3 turn for each turn of the eccentric shaft. the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle occur in the space between a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing. passes through the centre of the rotor and is supported by fixed bearings.[  The central drive shaft.Design: In the Wankel engine. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing. dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. . The rotors ride on eccentrics (analogous to crankpins) integral to the eccentric shaft (analogous to a crankshaft). The theoretical shape of the rotor between the fixed corners is the result of a minimization of the volume of the geometric combustion chamber and a maximization of the compression ratio. called the eccentric shaft or E-shaft. In each rotor of the Wankel engine. the oval-shaped housing surrounds a rotor which is triangular with bowshaped flanks. The rotors both rotate around the eccentrics and make orbital revolutions around the eccentric shaft.

Parts of Rotary engine:Rotor Housing Output shaft .

 At the apex of each face is a metal blade that forms a seal to the outside of the combustion chamber. These teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the housing.Rotor: The rotor has three convex faces. each of which acts like a piston. This gear mating determines the path and direction the rotor takes through the housing.  The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth cut into the centre of one side. . Each face of the rotor has a pocket in it. There are also metal rings on each side of the rotor that seal to the sides of the combustion chamber. which increases the displacement of the engine. allowing more space for air/fuel mixture.

The shape of the combustion chamber is designed so that the three tips of the rotor will always stay in contact with the wall of the chamber. forming three sealed volumes of gas. .Housing: The housing is roughly oval in shape (it's actually an epitrochoid.

Output shaft: The output shaft has round lobes mounted eccentrically. . The lobe acts sort of like the crankshaft in a piston engine. it pushes on the lobes. causing it to spin. the force that the rotor applies to the lobes creates torque in the shaft. As the rotor follows its path around the housing. Since the lobes are mounted eccentric to the output shaft. meaning that they are offset from the centreline of the shaft. Each rotor fits over one of these lobes.

 Coolant flows through passageways surrounding all of the pieces.Rotary engine assembly:A rotary engine is assembled in layers. . The two-rotor engine we took apart has five main layers that are held together by a ring of long bolts.

An intake port is located on each of these end pieces. They also seal in the two sections of housing that contain the rotors. The inside surfaces of these pieces are very smooth. . which helps the seals on the rotor do their job.The two end layers contain the seals and bearings for the output shaft.

which contains the exhaust ports. one for each rotor. This is what determines the orbit of the rotor. This is the part of the housing that contains the rotor. The centre piece contains two intake ports. The rotor also rides on the large circular lobe on the output shaft.The next layer in from the outside is the oval-shaped rotor housing. . so its outside surfaces are very smooth. It also separates the two rotors. The centre piece contains another intake port for each rotor. In the centre of each rotor is a large internal gear that rides around a smaller gear that is fixed to the housing of the engine.

This is roughly the equivalent of the pistons in a piston engine. This lobe is offset from the centreline of the shaft and acts like the crank handle on a winch. this is accomplished in a completely different way. The heart of a rotary engine is the rotor. But in a rotary engine. . which is the same cycle that four-stroke piston engines use. giving the rotor the leverage it needs to turn the output shaft. turning three times for every one revolution of the rotor. As the rotor orbits inside the housing.Rotary engine functioning:Rotary engines use the four-stroke combustion cycle. The rotor is mounted on a large circular lobe on the output shaft. it pushes the lobe around in tight circles.

Intake Compression Combustion Exhaust .

drawing air/fuel mixture into the chamber.  When the peak of the rotor passes the intake port. As the rotor moves past the intake port. . that chamber is sealed off and compression begins. the volume of the chamber expands.Intake: The intake phase of the cycle starts when the tip of the rotor passes the intake port. At the moment when the intake port is exposed to the chamber. the volume of that chamber is close to its minimum.

the volume of the chamber gets smaller and the air/fuel mixture gets compressed. This is when combustion starts. . By the time the face of the rotor has made it around to the spark plug. the volume of the chamber is again close to its minimum.Compression: As the rotor continues its motion around the housing.

When the spark plugs ignite the air/fuel mixture. The combustion gases continue to expand. moving the rotor and creating power. pressure quickly builds. . until the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port. forcing the rotor to move.Combustion: Most rotary engines have two spark plugs. so the flame would spread too slowly if there were only one plug.  The pressure of combustion forces the rotor to move in the direction that makes the chamber grow in volume. The combustion chamber is long.

the peak of the rotor passes the intake port and the whole cycle starts again. forcing the remaining exhaust out of the port. the chamber starts to contract. By the time the volume of the chamber is nearing its minimum.Exhaust: Once the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port. . the high- pressure combustion gases are free to flow out the exhaust. As the rotor continues to move.

 No reciprocating parts. filling the combustion charge in 270 degrees of main shaft rotation rather than 180 degrees in a piston engine.Advantages: A far higher power to weight ratio than a piston engine.  It is approximately one third of the size of a piston engine of equivalent power output.  Runs with almost no vibration.  Supplies torques for about two thirds of the combustion cycle rather than one quarter for a piston engine.  Superior breathing. .  Far fewer parts than a piston engine.  Cheaper to mass-produce as contains few parts.

As unburnt fuel is in the exhaust stream. . emissions requirements are difficult to meet. This causes the squeeze stream. the amount of unburned fuel is higher which is released into the environment.Disadvantages: Rotor sealing is still a problem as the engine housing has vastly different temperatures in each separate chamber section.  Due to the longer combustion chamber.  The combustion is slow as the combustion chamber is big and moving. preventing the flame from reaching the chamber trailing side.  Poor emissions.

Applications: Thanks to the compact design and unique advantages over the most common internal combustion engine in use employing reciprocating Pistons. snowmobiles. Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices including: automobiles. jet skis. racing cars. go-karts. motorcycles. and auxiliary power units. . aircrafts. chain saws.

a sports car powered by a Wankel engine. . ARV Super2 with Midwest AE110 twin-rotor Wankel engine. The Mazda-RX8. Norton Classic air-cooled twin-rotor motorcycle.Mazda 787B racing car powered by Wankel engine.

Thank you .