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TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF
SECOND-ORDER CIRCUITS
 Ccts with two distinct storage elements.
 Not reduceable any way.
 May be same type or different.
 L & C  Peculiar ocillatory behaviour,
due to energy flow back and forth
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 Same procedure:
 Formulate differential eqn.
 Find the roots of characteristic eqn.
 Natural response will be over/critical/
under/udamped,depending on damping
ratio( ).
 Varying  changes location of roots in
S-plane as well as the rasponse.
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4 .  Un-damped response is ocillations.Over and critical damped rsponse are exponentially decaying like first order. So we can have diverging oscillations. we can place roots any where in S-plane.  Under damped response is decaying oscillations.  Using op-ampl.

9.1 NATURAL RESPONSE OF SERIES & PARALLEL RLC CIRCUITS Once rest of citcuit is Thevenized/Nortanized we are left with: 5 .

vL  vR  vC  vS (dvL / dt )  (dvR / dt )  (dvC / dt )  (dvS / dt ) Putting: vL  L(di / dt ). vR  Ri.& i / C  (dvC / dt ) d 2 i R di 1 1 dvS   i dt L dt LC L dt 6 .

iR  .  dt R dt L d 2v 1 dv 1 1 diS   v dt RC dt LC C dt 7 .ic  iR  iL  iS dic dt  diR dt  diL  diS dt dt dv v diL v Putting:ic  C .

eqn of the type: d2 y (t ) dy (t ) dx 2  20  0 y (t )  k 2 dt dt dt For source free i. natural response: iS  vS  x  0  dvS diS dx   0 dt dt dt d2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )  0 dt 2 dt 8 .e.d 2i R di 1 1 dvS   i dt L dt LC L dt d 2v 1 dv 1 1 diS   v dt RC dt LC C dt Both are second order diff.

called damping ratio. unknown variable. 9 . 0 has the dimensions of rad/s.d 2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )  0 dt 2 dt  y (t ) is either v or i. called undamped natural freq  is dimensionless.

2 R C/L 10 . LC 1   R C / L for series case 2 1 1   for parallel case. both for series & parrallel.d 2i R di 1 1 dvS   i dt L dt LC L dt d 2v 1 dv 1 1 diS   v dt RC dt LC C dt d2 y (t ) dy (t ) dx 2  20  0 y (t )  k 2 dt dt dt Equating corresponding coefficients: 1 0  .

its 1st & 2nd derivatives have same form.(1) dt 2 dt Possible if the function. Subisituting 2 in 1 we get: (s2  20 s  02 ) Aest  0 Q Aest  0  s2  20 s  02  0 11 .(2) We have to find values of A & s..d2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )  0... An exponential form like:  y (t )  Aest ....

therefore. and theire topology. this eqn is called characteristic eqn. & C. L.  Roots of Ch eqn are called:  Natural frequency 12 . s  20 s    0 2 2 0 AS  & 0 depend only on R.

 Characteristic frequencies.  The roots are: S1.  Critical frequencies. Roots of Ch eqn are called:  Natural frequencies.2  (   2  1) 0 13 .

therefore response: y1 (t )  A1es1t and y2 (t )  A2 es2t If these are the solution  y (t )  A1es1t + A2 es2 t is also the solution. 14 . A1 & A2 are costants to be determined.Since we have two roots.

and C are always real and +ve.2  (   2  1) 0  Important cases (1)  f 1   2  1 0  Roots are real. S1. -ve. and distinct  Response is over damped. depending on sign of ( 2  1). (2)  =1   2  1  0  Roots are. L. real. -ve & identical  Response is critically damp 15 . and S2 may be real or complex.R. S1 .

2  (   2  1) 0 (3) 0 p  p 1   2  1 p 0  Roots are coplex conjugate  Response is underdamped. (4)  =0  Roots are purely imaginary  Response is undamped.(2)  =1   2  1  0  Roots are. -ve & identical  Response is critically damp S1. 16 . real.

 For various  we keep L & C costant and vary R  Stored energy results in natural response. iC  0 & vL  0 17 . i.e.  It is assumed that sw remained closed to achive SS.

di (0 ) diL (0 ) vL (0 )   dt dt L 18 .1: In the series RLC circuit find ) di (0 i (0 ) and (just after sw activation).EXAMPLE 9. dt SOLUTION: Just before activation of sw: iL (0 ) =0 & vC (0 )  VS . By continuity rule:i(0 ) = iL (0 ) = iL (0 ) =0 &vC (0 )  vC (0 )  VS .

By KVL: vR (0 )  vC (0 )  vL (0 )  0 vL (0 )  vR (0 )  vC (0 )  Ri(0 )  VS  VS vL (0 )  VS VS di (0 ) diL (0 ) vL (0 )    dt dt L L The initial conditions for series circuit are: ) V di (0 S  i (0 )  0 and  dt L 19 .

)= 0 20 .1: In the parallel RLC circuit show that: ) I d v (0 S  v(0 )  0 &  dt C SOLUTION: In SS condition: V(0.)  VC (0.)=VL (0 )  0 V(0+)  VC (0+ )=VC (0.EXERCISE 9.

1: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  IS At t(0+ ) C will act as short across L:  iC (0 )  iL (0 )  iL (0 )  IS dVC (0 ) ) d V(0 iC (0 )  C  C dt dt (Polarity of vol is opposit to current) dV(0 ) iC (0 ) IS   dt C C 21 .EXERCISE 9.

-ve. and distinct Unit of roots is neper/second(Np/s) S1.OVERDAMPED RESPONSE If  f 1  Roorts are real.2  (   2  1) 0 The response: y (t )  A1es1t + A2 es2 t Which can be writen as: y (t )  A1e t 1 + A2 e-t  2 1 1 1    .and S1 (   2  1) 0 1 1 1    S2 (   2  1) 0 22 .

y (t )  A1e t 1 + A2 e-t  2 dy (t ) 1  t  1 -t   A1 ( )e 1 + A2 ( )e 2 dt 1 2 y (0)  A1e0 + A2 e0 = A1 + A2 A1 A2 dy (0) -1 0 -1 0  A1 ( )e + A2 ( )e =-( + ) dt τ1 τ2 τ1 τ2  ) 1  dy (0  )  A1  y (0   2 1   2  dt   ) 2  dy (0  )  A2  y (0   1 1   2  dt  23 .

EXERCISE 9. 1 1 SOLUTION:  2 R C/L 1   1. and C=20nF. R=150. Calculate v(t ).2: In the parallel RLC circuit let IS  12mA. sketch and label it. L=5mH.6 20  109 2  150 5  103 24 .

33 S S2 (   2  1) 0 25 .2: Q  f 1  Overdamped 0  1/ LC  1/ 5  103  20  109  105 Np / S 1 1 1    30  S S1 (   2  1) 0 1 1 1    3.EXERCISE 9.

Initial conditions for parallel case are: +)  IS dV(0 + V(0 )  0 &  dt C 12  103   6  105 V / S 20  109  ) 1  dy (0  A1  y (0 )  2    2.25 1   2  dt   ) 2  dy (0  )  A2  y (0    2.25 1 1   2  dt  26 .

Alternative:y (t )  A1e t 1 + A2 e-t  2 dy (t ) 1  t  1 -t   A1 ( )e 1 + A2 ( )e 2 dt 1 2 y (0 )  A1e0 + A2 e0 = A1 + A2  0 A1 A2 dy (0 ) -1 0 -1 0  A1 ( )e + A2 ( )e =-( + ) dt τ1 τ2 τ1 τ2 6  105  -( A1 + A2 30S 3.25 ) 27 .25 and A2  2.33S A1  2.

25et 3.Response  v(0 )  0 v(t  0 )  2.25et 30  S  2.3 S 28 .

25et 30  S  2.3μS )mA 29 .3μS ) =15(-e-t 30μS +e-t 3.25et 3. Discuss your results.25/150)(-e-t 30μS +e-t 3.EXERCISE 9.2 find current through each element as function of time.3 S V (a) iR (0 )  0 iR (t  0 )  (2.3: In the over-damped circuit of exercise 9. SOLUTION: We calculated response as: v(0 )  0 v(t  0 )  2.

3μS )mA 30 .iR (t  0+ )=15(-e-t 30μS +e-t 3.

ic  C ( dvc / dt ) ic (t  0 )   t 3.5et 30  S mA The time when response crosses t-axis: 1.(b) ic (0 )  0.3  S  t 30  S   1 e e 20  109  2.5et 30  S 0 t  8.5e t 3.25 S 31 .5e t 3.3  S  13.3  S  13.25    30  S   3.3 S  1.

5e-t 30μS mA 32 .5e-t 3.ic (t  0 )=1.3μS -13.

3 S mA 33 .25  t 3.5e t 30  S  1.3  S  e t 30  S ) dt  12mA  ( e  5mH 0 13.5e t 3.(c) iL (0 )  12mA t iL (t  0 )  (1/ L)  vL dt  i (0 ) 0 t 2.

iL (t  0 )=13.5e-t 3.3μS mA 34 .5e-t 30μS -1.

3  S iL (t  0 )  13.3  S mA mA iR (t  0 )  ic (t  0 )  iL (t  0 )  0    35 .5e  t 30  S  1.5e   t 30  S  13.5e  t 3.3 S ) ic (t  0 )  1.5e   t 3.At t  0  iR (t  0 )  15(et 30  S  et 3.

2    jd S1 & S2 are coplex cojugate.2  (   2  1) 0  2 1  j 1  2 Roots: S1.UNDER DAMPED If 0 p  p 1   2  1  1 S1. Damping coefficient= =0 Damped natural freq=d  0 1   2 36 .

Both  & d dimensions of freq   Np/s. S1. d  rad/s.2  CoplexNp/s Subsituting S1.2    jd in y (t )  A1es1t + A2 es2 t and using appendix 3 we get y(t)=Ae- t cos(d t   ) 37 .

with angular freqd . phase angle . and exponentially decaying amplitde Ae- t The rate of decay is governed by  =1/ =1/0 Damped freq=d  0 1   2  d p 0   slower decay &d  0 38 .y(t)=Ae- t cos(d t   ) This is damped sinosoidal.

- t y(t)=Ae cos(d t   ) 39 .

40 .

EXERCISE 9.5  105 Np / S 41 .5 2  500 20  109 / 5  103 Q 0 p  p 1  Response is under damped.4: Calculate. 0  (1/ LC )  (1/ 5  103  20  103  105 rad / S   0  0. 1 1 Solution:   2 R C/L 1 1   0.sketch & label v(t ).

(dv(0 ) / dt )  ( IS / C ) =(-12×10-3 /29×10-9 )=-0.6×106 V/S y (t )  Ae t cos(d t   ) V (0 )  Ae0 cos(0   )  A cos     / 2  y (t )  Ae t sin d t 42 .5)2  86602.4 d  0 1   2  105 1  (0.54rad / S Initial conditions: v(0 )  0 and.Solution: 9.

9282  v(t  0 )  6.54t   1/   1/ 50000  200  S Td  2 / d  2 / 86602.6  106 dt A  6. 1.54  72.y (t )  Ae t sin d t dv / dt   A e t sin d t  Ad e t cos d t dv(0 )   A e0 sin 0  Ad e0 cos 0  0.58 S .58 S  5104 t fd  1/ Td  1/ 72.9282e sin 86602.38kHz 43 .

9282e  5104 t sin 86602.54t 44 .v(t  0 )  6.

9282e  5104 t sin86602.v(t  0 )  6.54t 45 .

( 2  1)  0 When  crosses unity. roots change from complex to real. 2 R C/L we getRC  2 RC 1  2 L / C for series case L / C for parallel case 46 . and response changes from oscilatory to non-oscilatory.CRITICALLY DAMPED RESOPONSE As   1. Subsituting  =1 in 1   R C / L for series case 2 1 1   for parallel case.

Repeated roots sugests solution of the form test with est . therefore general solution: -1 st y (t )  (A1 +A2 t)e where =(1/0 ) S1 =S2 =  0  We can prove this is the solution by putting d2 y (t ) dy (t ) it in  20  02 y (t )  0 dt 2 dt 47 .Q S1 = S2 = -0  y (t )  A1es1t + A2 es2 t will not be solution.

EXERCISE 9. 1 1 1 SOLUTION:    1  RC  2 R C/L 2 L/C RC  (1/ 2) 5  103 / 20  109  250 v(t )  ( A1  A2 t )e t /  Applying initial conditions: 48 .5: Find the value of R for which parallel RLC cct becomes critically damped. Find v(t ) if the cct is in SS prior to sw activation.

5 v(t )  ( A1  A2 t )e t /  v(0 )  ( A1  A2  0)e0 /   A1  0  v(t )  A2 te t /  dv(0 ) =-IS /C=-12×10-3 /20×10-9 =-6×105 dt  t  t /   dv  t /   A2  e  1e  dt     -0 -0/τ  dv(0 ) -0/τ =A2  e +1e  =-6×105  dt  τ  A=-6×105 49 .Solution 9.

SOLUTION9.5  v(t  0 )  6  105 te t /  τ=1/ω0 = LC = 5×10-3 ×20×10-9 10μS For peak value:  -t -t/τ -t/τ dv 5 =-6×10  e +e  =0  dtτ   t= =10S vp  -6×105 e1  2.2  105 50 .

yt y  6e t /  51 .

 v (t  0 )  6  105 te t /  52 .

To have loss less opration: 1 R=0 for series cct    R C / L =0 2 1 1 & R= for parallel case    0 2 R C/L   =0  0 & d  0  2  1  0  y(t)=Ae- t cos(d t   ) will become y(t)=A cos(0 t   ) 53 .UNDAMPED RESPONSE Decay of under damped response is due to loss in resistance. For zero loss oscilations will be sustained.

 0 is called UNDAMPED NATURAL FRQ T=2 / 0 Q   0  S1.y(t)=A cos(0 t   ) A & Q are found by using initial conditions.2  (   2  1)0   j0 54 . As this is an an undamped sinusoid.

6: Calculate. sketch & label v(t ) Solution: 1 ω0 = LC 1 = =105 rad/S 5×10-3 ×2010-9 v(t )  A cos(0 t   ) Q v(0+ )=0  Acos(0+θ)=0  θ= /2  v(t )  A cos(0 t  900 )  A sin(0 t ) v(t )  A sin(0 t ) 55 .EXERCISE 9.

v(t )  A sin(0 t ) dv  A0 cos(0 t ) dt dv(0+) -IS -12×10-3 = = =-6×105 dt C 29×10-9 Aω0 cos(0)=-6×105  A=-6×105 / 0  -6×105 /105  6 v(0 )  0 & v(t  0 )  6 sin105 t 56 .

v (t  0 )  6 sin105 t 57 .

unless active elements are used to recoup losses 58 .e.When  =0. roots are purely imaginary d is always less than 0 d  0  2  1 Td is always longer than T0   d  &Td    1 . d  0 & Td   i. response changes from oscilatory to non-oscilatory In practical ccts un-damped condition can not be achieved due to stray resistances.

2 0 & distinct. roots close up on real axis  When  =1. -ve 2 S  (      1)  1. roots coalesce on real axis This is critical damping.ROOT LOCUS   f 1  Roots are real.  As decreases.  Decreasing  below unity. when  =0 59 .  They reach imaginary axis. causes the roots to to split & move on symetric trajactory toward imaginary axis.

(1) Abscissa of S1.2 0 is -ve of damping coefficient- =-0 .2 (real part of S1.2 ) S  (  j 1   2 ) 1.2 ) is the damping freq d  0  2  1 (3)Distance of roots from origin is un-damped freq 0 (4)Dampingratio  = 1-(d /0 )2 60 .2 ( imaginary part of S1.Radial distance of under damped root from origin = r =  2  d2  0  1/ LC r being constant indicsates that trajactory is circular with radious0 . (2) Ordinate of S1.

the eqn govering the cct will take the form: d2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )  02 y () dt 2 dt The respocse will be: y (t )  yxt  yss yxt will have the same functional form as that of natural response 61 .9.2 TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF 2nd CCT For response to dc forcing function x  XS .

For series at t =  V I   C  dVS I V C  I S  C dVS dt  dt C For parallel at t =  I V L L dIS dt  I S V V    =L dIS dt  L 62 .

2) dt RC dt LC C dt dVS dIS V I  Since  &  dt C dt L Therefore: d 2i R di 1 1   i  I dt L dt LC LC d 2v 1 dv 1 1   v  V dt RC dt LC LC d2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )  02 y () dt 2 dt 63 .d 2i R di 1 1 dvS   i  ( 9.1) dt L dt LC L dt d 2v 1 dv 1 1 diS   v  (9.

Depending on the value of damping ratio  yxt will be: Over damped if  f 1 Critically damped if  =1 Under damped if 0 p  p 1 Un-damped if  = 0 64 .

& are constant to be determined by initial conditions y(0+ ) and dy(0+ ) / dt 65 .The corresponding functional forms are: yxt  B1e t 1  B2 e t  2 Over damped yxt  ( B1  B2 )e t  Cri tcally damped yxt  Be t cos(d t   ) Under damped yxt  B cos(d t   ) Un-damped B1 . B. B2 .

1.2 (   2  1) 0   1/ 0  =0 -1 S1 =S2 =  0  d  0 1   2 ySS  y () 66 .2 1 1    S1.

C acts as open & L acts as short. 67 . usinng SS condition..Procedure to find response to sudden change of cct in its SS condition: (1) Find y(0+ ) & dy(0+ ) / dt using continuty rules for L & C. (2) Find y().

then find out differential eq and compair it with standered form to find 0 &  .(3) Find  & 0 If the cct is reduce able to series form: 0  1/ LC &  =(1/2)R eq C/L If the cct is reduce able to parallel form: 0  1/ LC &  =(1/2)/(R eq C/L ) If it is neither straight series nor parallel. (4) For the value of  select the form of solution.Calculate the values of constants. 68 .

25   dv(0 ) dvC (0 ) i (0 ) 0    0 dt dt C C Note the change in values 69 .7: Find v(t ).EXERCISE9. SOLUTION:   (1) v(0 )  vC (0 ) 4   vC (0 )= 25=16V 4+2.

SOLUTION:9.25 2 2 90×9×10-3 70 .25×103 =1.7 (2) By inspection: v()=25V (3) R eq =2k25Ω. ω0 = 1 LC = 1 9×10 ×(1/90)10 -3 =10 rad/S 5 -6 -6 1 1 10 ξ= R C/L = 2.

7:Q  f 1  Respnse is over damped.& =5μS (4)Applying 1st initial condition. τ1 = τ1 = 1 (ξ. 71 .Solution 9. B1  B2  9 (1). y (t  0 )  B1et / 1  B2 e t /  2  y ().with y()=25: y (0 )  B1e0  B2 e0  25  16.ξ 2 -1)ω0 1 (ξ+ ξ 2 -1)ω0 =20μS. and.

7: Applying 2nd initial condition to: y(t  0+ )=B1e-t/τ1 +B2 e-t/τ2 +y() dy(t) -B1e-t/τ1 -B2 e-t/τ2 = dtτ 1τ 2 dy(0+ ) -B1 -B2 -B1 -B2 = = =0 dtτ τ 1 20μS 5μS 2 B1 +4B2 =0 (2) From (1) & (2) we get: B1 =-12.Solution 9. & B2 =3 72 .

7: The response is: y(t p 0 )=16V y(t f 0 )=-12e-t/20S  3et / 5  S  25  3(et / 5  S  4e-t/20S )  25 73 .Solution 9.

)=16V y(t  0+ )=-12e-t/20μS +3e-t/5μS +25 74 .y(t  0.

y(t  0.)=16V y(t  0+ )=-12e-t/20μS +3e-t/5μS +25 75 .

6 2 R eq C/L 2 25 (1/3)×10-3 /0.EXERCISE 9.12A 12+13 (3) ω0 =(1/ LC )=1/ 0.3(1/3)×10-3 =100rad/S (4) R eq  12  13  25 1 1 1 1 (5) ξ= = =0.5=3.3 76 .8: Find i(t ) Solution: (1) i (0 )  i(0 )  6 A5 di (0 ) vL (0 ) vC (0 ) vC (0 )    0 dt L L L 12 (2) By inspection i()= 6.

i (t )  Be t cos(d t   )  y () (9) 1st initial condition: i (0 )  Be0 cos(0   )  3.8 (6)   0  0.6  100  60 (7) ωd =ω0 1-ξ2 =100 1-(.12  6.Solution 9.38 (1) 77 .5 B cos( )  3.6)2 =80 (8) Q  p 1  Response is under damped.

38 / cos(36.225 78 .87)  4.Solution 9.8 (10) 2nd initial condition: di(t) =B  -ωd e-αt sin(ωd t+θ)-αe-αt cos(ωd t+θ) dt di(0+ ) =B  -80e0 sin(θ)-60e0 cos(θ)  0 dt tan   60 / 80    36.870 B  3.

225e +3.Solution 9.8: Total response: i (0 )  6 A5 i(t  0+)=4.87)+3.12A  =1/60=16.12A5.87 80t    0  t  8mS 180 3 -60  8  10 ip  4.7 79 .66mS T=2 /0  2 / 80  2(22 / 7) / 80  78.225e-60t cos(80t-36.734=5.57 mS 36.

i(t  0+)=4.225e-60t cos(80t-36.87)+3.12A
i(t=0)=4.225e0 cos(-36.87)+3.12=6.5
For the 1st +ve peak value:
t=(78.57/360)×36.87=8mS
-608103

i(peak)=4.225e

 1  3.12  5.7
80

i (0 )  6 A5
i(t  0+)=4.225e-60t cos(80t-36.87)+3.12A

81

EXERCISE 9.9: Find v(t  0 ).

82

 2 C L  2  1 1 v()  0V 83 .Solution 9.9: By superposition: 1 1 1  + v(0 )= 6vC (0 )iL (0+ )  3V 1+1 1+1 1+1 dv(0 ) 1 dvC (0 ) 1 diL (0 )   dt 2 dt 2 dt 1  iC (0 ) vL (0+ ) 1  6/2 3    +  =-3V  =.

vS  vR1  vC  v d 2 vS d 2 i d dvC d 2 v  R1   dt dt dt dt dt d 2 i 1 di d 2 v  R1   dt C dt dt d 2 i 1 di d 2 v 1   (1) dt 1 dt dt 84 .

diL d v  vL  L L dt dt  v  i  R2   di  di 1 dv 1 dv  L     1   dt R2 dt  dt 1 dt di dv v (2) dt dt 85 .

di dv v (2) dt dt Subisituting (2) in d 2 vS d 2 i di d 2 v    (1) dt dt dt dt d 2 vS d dv dv d 2v  (v  )  (v  ) dt dt dt dt dt d 2 v dv 1 1 d 2 vS   v dt dt 2 2 dt 86 .

ωd =ω0 1-ξ 2 =1/2. v()=0V  p 1  Response is under damped: 87 .2v d d v dv 1 1 S   v dt dt 2 2 dt Copairing this with: 2 d2 y (t ) dy (t )  20  02 y (t )   20 y () dt 2 dt 0  1/ 2 : &   1/ 2 α=ω0 ξ=1/2.

v (t  0 )  Be t cos(d t   )  v() 1st initial condition: v (0 )  B cos   3 (A) dv  B  -αe-αt cos(ωd t+θ)-ωd e-αt sin(ωd t+θ) dt dv(0 )  B   co( )  d sin( )  3 (B) dt 0.   Bcos 3   450 and B=3 2 v (t  0 )  3 2 e t / 2 cos(t / 2  450 ) 88 .5(cos +sin ) 3 From eqns A & B.

 )  3 2 e t / 2 cos(t / 2  450 ) v ( t  0 v(0 )=3V  89 .

56637S Tω (1/2) T T 4π 360  T  t = 45= = =1. )  3 2 e t / 2 cos(t / 2  450 ) v ( t  0 v(0 )=3V  2π 2π 2π ω=2πf=  T= = =4π=12.57S 360 8 8 90 .

3 STEP RESPONSE OF 2nd ORDER CCT Most of the practical cct can be reduced to 2nd order. 91 . Even higher order ccts behave predominantly as 2nd order. We will investigate step response of a RLC cct.9. Specifications are gernally given interms of 2nd order step response.

After cct reaching SS. it is subjected to vi  Vm for t f 0 vi  0 for t p 0 By continuity rules: v0 (0 )  vC (0 )  v0 (0 )  0 dv0 (0 ) dt  dvC (0 ) iL (0 ) vo ( SS ) dt  iC (0 ) C iL (0 ) 0    0 C C C  vI ()  RiR ()  vL ()  Vm -R×0-0=Vm 92 .

2 (   2  1) 0 93 . If  f 1 the repose will be over damped 1.2 1 1   (2)  S1.Undamped natural frq =0  1/ LC Damping ratio =  =(1/2)R L/C Step response=v0 (t  0 )  v0( xt )  Vm (1) Depending on the value of  the response will take on of the four forms.

we get: B1 = Vm1 1   2 &B2 = Vm 2  2  1   1 2  1   2 v0 (t  0 )  Vm (1  e + et 2 )  2  1 1   2 94 .Subsituting yxt  B1et 1  B2 et 2 in eqn (1) and using initial conditions v0 (0 )  0 & dv0 (0+ )/dt=0.

dy(0+ ) / dt  0 : B B    0 (2) 1  2 From eqn (1) & (2) we get: B1 = Vm1 1   2 &B2 = Vm 2  2  1 95 . y(0+ )  0 : B1 +B2 =-Vm (1) Using 1st cond.y (t  0 )  B1e t 1  B2 e t  2  Vm Using 1st cond.

EXERCISE 9.25  2 1. 10 S after the application of 10V step.5 C 10  109 96 .25. Solution: 1 1 ω0 = = =105 rad/S LC 10×10-3 10-3 ×10×10-9 1 ξ= R C/L =1.10: Specify R for over damped response with  =1. Find value of response.5  2k 5 0.25 L 10  103 R= =2.

& τ2 =5μS 1 2 4 1  &   2  1 3 1   2 3 τ1 -1τ τ2 -t τ + v0 (t  0 )=Vm (1+ e 2 + e 2) τ2 -τ1 τ1 -τ2 4 -1 20S 1 -t 5S  10(1.10 τ1.Solution 9.364V 3 3 97 .e + e ) 3 3 4 -t/20S 1 -t 5S v0 (t=10μS )=10(1.e + e )=2.2 = 1 (ξ± ξ 2 -1)ω0  τ1 =20μS.

1 -t/τ5S 4 -t/20S
y (t )  10  1+ e
 e

3
3

98

Solution 9.10 An alternative solution:
y (t )  A1e-t/τ1 +A2 e-t/τ2 +y()
)
d
y
(0
y (0 )  0 &
0
dt
1st initial condition: A1 +A 2 =-10

A1
A2
dy (t )


dt
1
2
2nd initial condition:
A1

A2

20  S
5 S
A1  4 A2  0

0
99

Solution 9.10
:A1 +A2  0
A1 +4A2  0
A1  (40 / 3) & A2  (10 / 3)
40 -t/20S 10 -t/τ5S
y (t )  
e
+
e
+10
3
3

1 -t/τ5S 4 -t/20S
=10  1+ e
 e

3
3


100

 1 -t/τ5S 4 -t/20S y(t )  10  1+ e  e  3  3   1 -10μS/τ5μS 4 -10μS/20μS y(t=10μS)=10  1+ e .364V 101 .e  3  3  =2.

v0( xt ) will be critically damped with  =1/0 Subsituting yxt  ( B1  B2 t )e t  in v0 (t  0 )  v0( xt )  Vm and using initial conditions v0 (0 )  0 & dv0 (0 ) / dt .If  =1. we get: t  t  v0 (t  0 )  Vm  1  (1  )e       102 .

y (t  0 )  ( B1  B2 t )e t   Vm Using 1st initial condition y(0+ )  0 : B1 =-Vm Using 2nd initial condition dy(0+ )/dt  0 : B2 B2   0   B1 =B2 =-Vm 103 .

y  t / y 1 y  1  t / y  et /  y  1  t / t t /  y  (1  )e   104 .

y 1 t t /  y  (1  )e  t t /  y  1  (1  )e  105 .

Exercise 9. Hence find the value of response at 10 S after the application of step pulse. 1 Solution:   R C / L  R=2 2 L C 10×10-3 R=2×1 =2K 10×10-9 106 .11: Specify R to have =1.

ω0 =1/ LC =1/ 10×10-3 ×10×10-9 =105   1/ 0  1/105  10  S t  t  v0 (t  0 )  Vm  1  (1  )e       t v0 (t  0 )  10  1  (1  )e t  10 S    10 S -10/10 v(t=10 S)=10  1-(1+ )e  V 10 S   =2.642V   107 .

Alternative solution: y (t  0 )  ( B1  B2 t )e t   Vm y (t  0 )  ( B1  B2 t )e t   10 y (t=0+ )=B1 +10=0  B1 =-10 dy (t)/dt=B2 e-tτ +(B1 +B2 t)(-1/τ)e-t τ dy (t=0)/dt=B2 +B1 (-1/τ)=0  B2 =B1 / =-10/ y (t  0+ )=(-10+(-10/τ)t)e-tτ +10  t  y (t  0 )=10  1-(1+ )e     + -tτ 108 .

e.COMPARISSION (CRITICALLY DAMPED) : (1) Step response of critically damped RLC with that of RC ccts having same  : RC: v0 (t  0 )  Vm (1  et  ).  0. 109 . Its initial slope = dv0 (0 )  Vm dt  i. it starts rising imediately.

some initial delay in rising. 110 .COMPARISSION (CRITICALLY DAMPED) :  t  For RLC : y (t  0 )=Vm  1-(1+ )e      t -tτ dy(t) t 1 -t τ    Vm  e  (1+ )(  )e  dt       t -tτ dy(t) t -t τ t -t τ    Vm  e  e  )e  dt      + -tτ dv0 (t  0 )  t -tτ  dy(t)  Vm  ( )e   0 dt dt    i.e. This is due to chocking actio of L.

(2) RLC response is slower than that of RC.26Vm This is also due to chocking action of L. 111 . For RC: v0 ( )  Vm (1  e1 )  0.63Vm For RLC: v0 ( )  Vm  1  (1  t /  )e1  0. At t =  .

0 p  p 1  Respose under damped  decaying sinusoid with :  =0 and d  0 1   2 subsituting in: yxt  Be t cos(d t   ) in v0 (t  0 )  Be t cos(d t   )  Vm and using initial conditions v0 (0+ )=0&dv0 (0+ )/dt=0 we get: vo (t  0 )  Vm ((1  e t 12 cos d t  sin  ) 112 .

v0 (t  0 )  Be t cos(d t   )  Vm Usin 1st initial condition V0 (0 )  0 : BCos +Vm  0 (A) Usin 2nd initial condition dV0 (0+ )/dt  0 : dv0 /dt=-Bωd e-αt Sin(ωd t+θ)-Bαe-αt cos(ωd t+θ) dv0 (0+) /dt=Bωd Sin(θ)+Bαcos(θ)=0  -ξωo Sinθ - -ξ = = =  Cosθ ωd ωo 1-ξ2 1-ξ2 Sinθ 1-Sinθ2 = -ξ 1-ξ 2  Sinθ=-ξ  θ=-Sin-1ξ & Cosθ= 1-ξ 2 113 .

-ξωo Sinθ - -ξ = = =  Cosθ ωd ωo 1-ξ2 1-ξ2 Sinθ = 1-Sinθ2 -ξ 1-ξ 2  Sinθ=-ξ  θ=-Sin-1ξ & Cosθ= 1-ξ 2 Subsituting Cosθ= 1-ξ2 in eqn (A) B 1-ξ  Vm  0  B  2  v0 (t  0 )  -Vm   1-ξ 2 -Vm 1-ξ2 -1 e t cos(d t  Sinξ) V e t m -1  v0 (t  0 )  Vm  1  cos(d t  Sinξ) 2   1-ξ    114 .

Hence find the cct response to 10V input step 115 .2  ( 4  3 j )103.EXERCISE 9.12: Assuming C=1 F. specify suitable R & L so that the roots of ch eqn are S1.

Solution 9.8 116 .2  ( 4  3 j )103.  This is an under damped case ωd =± 3×10-3 & α=4×10-3 ω0 = ωd2 +α2 =5×10-3 ω0 =1/ LC  L=1/ω02 C L=1/(5×10-3 )11×10-6 =40mH α=ξω0  ξ=α/ω0 =4×10-3 /5×103 =0.12: Q S1.

12 1 C L 40×10-3 ξ= R  R=2ξ =2×0.8 =320 2 L C 1×10-6 - t e v0 (t³0+ )=Vm ((1cos ωd t-sinξ) 1-ξ2 5 -4103 =10((1.e cos( 3  103 t-sin0.130 ) 3 117 .e cos (3  103 t-53.Solution 9.8) 3 5 -4103 =10((1.

Alternative solution 9.6=-50/3 v(t  0 )=(50/3)e + -4103 t Cos(3  103 t+θ)+10 v(t  0+ )=10  1-(5/3)Cos(3  103 t+θ) 118 .13)=-10/0.12 v(t  0+ )=Ae-αt Cos(ωd t+θ)+v(SS) v(t  0+ )=Ae-αt Cos(ωd t+θ)+10 v(t=0+ )=ACos(θ)+10=0 dv(t)/dt=A  -αe-αt Cos(ωd t+θ)-e-αt ωd Sin(ωd t+θ) dv(t=0)/dt=A  -αCos(θ)-ωd Sin(θ)  0  Tanθ=-4/3  θ=-53.13  A=-10/Cos(-53.

Smaller the
value of 
the more
rapidly the
response rises.
For  p 1
(1) Response
rises above Vm
Over shoot.
(2) After over shoot Ringing.
119

OVER SHOOT
vo (t  0 )  Vm ((1 

e t
1 2

cos (d t  sin  )

Let B = -Vm / 1-ξ2 & θ = -sin-1ξ then
vo (t  0 )  (Vm  Be t cos (d t   )
dv0
dt

 B   e t cos (d t   )  d e t sin(d t   )
120

OVER SHOOT
dv0
 B   e t cos (d t   )  d e t sin(d t   )
dt
But   0  ( sin  )0 & d  0 1   2  (cos  )0
dv0
dt
dv0
dt

 B0 e t  sin  cos (d t   )  cos  sin(d t   )
 B0 e t Sin(d t     )  B0 e t sin d t

121

tn   . d 0 1   2 First max occurs at t1   0 1   2 Subsituting value of t1 in: vo (t  0 )  Vm ((1  e t 12 cos (d t  sin  ) 122 ..e.1.2.dv0  B0 e t sin d t dt Wanishes for t= & d tn  n n n i.. n=0.

First max occurs at t1   0 1   2 Subsituting value of t1 in: e t vo (t  0 )  Vm ((1  12 1 vo (t1  0 )  Vm ((1   12 1 cos (d t  sin  ) exp(   0 0 1   2 )cos ( 0 1   2 ( ) 0 1   2   vo (t1 )  Vm  1  exp( )cos(   )  2 2   1   1     123 ) .

1 vo (t1  0 )  Vm ((1   12 exp( 0 0 1   2 )cos ( 0 1   2 ( ) 0 1   2 )   vo (t1 )  Vm  1  exp( )cos(   ) 2 2   1   1     1  Q cos(   )   cos    1  Sin2   1   2   1   vo (t1 )  Vm  1  exp( )( 1   2 ) 2 2   1   1      -πξ  ) vo (t1 )=Vm  1+exp( 2   1-ξ   124 .

larger the over shoot.   0. smaller the value of  . over shoot  100% 125 . There is no over shoot for   1 But for 0 p  p 1.Normalized over shoot= OSnor = V0 (t1 )-Vm Vm =exp( -πξ 1-ξ2 ) Over shoot depends only on damping ratio  .

13: Calculate the % over shoot as well as the instant at which it occurs.  -πξ  Solution: vo (t1 )=Vm  1+exp( ) 2   1-ξ    -πξ  OS=Vm  1+exp( )  Vm 2   1-ξ   -πξ OS  Vm exp( ) 1-ξ2 126 .EXERCISE # 9.

8)2 )=1.5% 127 .Solution 9.13 OS  Vm exp( %OS=100Vm exp( =100exp( =100exp( -πξ 1-ξ2 -πξ 1-ξ2 -πξ 1-ξ2 ) )/Vm ) -π(0.8) 1-(0.

13 ω0 =1/ LC =1/ 40×10-3 ×1×10-6 =5KNp/S t1 = π ω0 1-ξ2 = π 5×103 1-(0.Solution 9.746mS 128 .8)2 =1.

Vm (1   ) 129 .SETTLING TIME (ts ) The time it takes an under damped reponse to settle within a band Vm (1   ) It is the the time taken by +ve envelope to decay to Vm (1   )  e t  -1  v0 (t  0 )  Vm  1  cos(d t  Sinξ) 2   1-ξ   -1   This will be max when cos(d t  Sinξ) 1 Vm (1  1 12 e tS ) .

the longer tS For  = 1 tS   ln( ) / 0 130 . Vm (1   ) e tS  1/  1   2 tS  1 ln( 1   2 ) 0 Smaller the value of  &  .SETTLING TIME (t s ) Vm (1  1 12 e tS ) .

Solution: εVm =10-3 V  ε=10-3 /10=10-4 1 10-6 ξ= R C/L =0.8×5×103 .8) 1-(0.EXERCISE # 9.015 or 1.8 -3 2 40×10 ω0 =1/ LC =1/ 40×10-3 ×10-6 =4KNp/S OSn =exp( -πξ 1-ξ2 )=exp( -π(0.8)2 )=0.5% -1 -1 2 tS = ln(ε 1-ξ )= ln(10-4 1-(0.8)2 )=2.43m 131 ξω0 0.5×320 =0.14: Find the time it takes for the response to settle within 1mV of its final value.