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Pulmonary Pathology .

also less common by Fungi and parasites.PNEUMONIA-(TOPIC OVERVIEW)  Is an Inflammatory Condition of the lung Affecting Primarily the microscopic Air Sacs Known as Alveoli it is usually caused by airborne infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms. The term `pneumonia” is sometimes more broadly applied to any condition . certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.

Bronhopneumonia (uni/bilateral disseminated foci of pneumonia) D. peribronchial and perivascular space) . one/more lobes) C. Lobara (it involves an entire lobe. Interstitial (it involves the interstitiumalveolar walls. Segmental / lobular pneumonia (it involves one segment of a lobe) B.Pneumonia can be classified base on the degree of damage/lesion caused: A.

Bacterial Pneumonia  Bacteria are the most common cause of commnityacquired pneumonia(CAP) (CAP). Streptococcus Pneumoniae isolated in nearly 50% of casesOther commonly isolated bacteria include: Haemophilus influenza in 20%.influenza virus. Chalamydophila pneumonia 13%. viruses account for approximately a third[6] and in children for about 15% of pneumonia cases. Staphyloccoccus aureus. respiratory syncytial . Moraxella catarrhails.[22] Commonly implicated agents include: rhinoviruses. coronaviruses. Legionella pnemophila and Gramnegative bacilli  VIAL PNEUMONIA In adults. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 3% of cases. with Streptococcus pneumonia.

Lobar pneumonia Lobar pneumonia is a form of pneumonia that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung. classifications of pneumonia. It is one of the two anatomic. must commonly involving pneumococcus Lobar pneumonia of the middle lobe .

small numbers of neutrophils.Lobar pneumonia Stages Lobar pneumonia usually has an acute progression. often numerous bacteria. with extravasation of red cells into shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. (prehepatization) Red hepatization or consolidation : Vascular congestion persists. intra-alveolar fluid. Grossly. the disease has four stages: Congestion in the first 24 hours: This stage is characterized histologically by vascular engorgement. Classically. This figure also shows pneumonia affecting the . the lung is heavy and hyperemic.

Grey hepatization : Red cells disintegrate. but grossly the color is paler and the cut surface is drier. with persistence of the neutrophils and fibrin. along with increased numbers of neutrophils and fibrin. The alveoli still appear consolidated. hence the term "hepatization". Resolution (complete recovery):The exudate is digested by enzymatic activity. and cleared by macrophages or by cough mechanism .alveolar spaces. This appearance has been likened to that of the liver.

  The picture is an example of the phase of “Gray hepatization”. gross:  The lower half of the specimen shows consolidation of an entire lobe. whereby the inflammatory exudate is becoming organized and the gross appearance .Lobar pneumonia.

Lobar pneumonia (low power) (High Power) The alveolar spaces are diffusely filled by neutrophils and neutrophilic debris .

Evolution: Pneumonia may be complicated through transition to abcess (hepatisation yellow). organization and fibrosis (carnification) or the occurrence of septic metastases frequently to the aortic valve. .

Alveolar septa are retained.exudate containing serofibrinos debris mixed with PMNs.thickened by   capillary congestion. 2. The general appearance is the leukocyte alveolitis : 1.Microscopy: It is found in the alveoli presence of fibrinous exudate partially lysed (homogeneous filling the alveoli and is giving to the lung parenchyma the liver-like consistency) and a significant amount of PMN granulocytes and macrophages in various stages of decay.and small bronchi 3. mixed with desquamated pneumocytes and RBCs. .