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**From chapter 14 “Elements of 3D Seismology” by
**

Chris Liner

Outline

•Justification for Processing

•Processing Flow

•Bins

Justification

**Field data representation of the data is distant from a
**

distance-depth representation of data.

.

or short-pulse adjustments e.Categories of Processing Adjustments to wavelets. •frequency filtering •phase shifts (rotation) •vibroseis correlation Traveltime Corrections (fig. 14.1) : Statics Normal Moveout Dip Moveout Migration ..g.

tau-p (or radon) •multiple suppression .Categories of Processing •Amplitude Corrections • Geometric spreading •Automatic Gain Control •Noise Reduction •Vertical stack •Muting •CMP stack •filtering (f. f-k.

An example of analysis for near-surface seismic structure Xia et al. 2004 ..

Seismic data “Multiple universes for seismic data” •Shotpoint gathers (distance versus time) •CMP gathers (distance versus time) •Tau-p (horizontal slowness versus intercept time) •f-k (frequency versus wavenumber) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and the receiver (m) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

x V dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) 1/V = 0 ( s/m) 1/V = p (ray parameter) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

x V angle dT/dx = 1/Vh (s/m) 1/Vh = 1/[V/ sin(angle) ] ( s/m) 1/Vh = p (ray parameter) .

x angle V 1/Vh = 1/[V/sin(angle) ]( s/m) 1/Vh = p (ray parameter) .

Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 Add amplitude tau (intercept time) s x (m) p (s/m) T0 .

Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 Ad da mp l it ud e tau (intercept time) s x (m) p (s/m) T0 .

f (1/s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .1/m) Two-way traveltime (s) x (m) V=f/k (m/s) 1/10 m 100 Hz .

1/m) Two-way traveltime (s) x (m) V=f/k (m/s) 1/10 m 100 Hz .f (1/s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .

1/m) x (m) f (1/s) Vh=inf (m/s) .Two-way traveltime (s) V h =1 00 0 (m /s ) Vh=inf (m/s) h V =1 00 0 (m /s ) k (wavenumber .

Sz Sx P-wave & Sv -wave .

Vh ~= 90% shear wave velocity “skin depth” = 1/2 longest wavelength .

Dispersion t1 t2 t0 t1 t2 Dispersion .

Xia et al.. 2004 .

1/m) x (m) f (1/s) V=f/k (m/s) 100 Hz .Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .

Outline Bins Calculated common midpoints “CMP bin center” Length and width of bin <= spatial aliasing dimensions .

To prevent aliasing: max dimension = V/4fmax For GOM: V = V0 + 0.5m by 12.5 m for > 2000 m IDEAL BIN SIZE: 5m by 5m for seafloor and deeper .4 x depth Rule of Thumb: 12.

The “best” bin: •SMALL •ALL OFFSETS •ALL AZIMUTHS •LARGE FOLD .

Outline •Justification for Processing •Processing Flow •Bins .

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