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# Processing and Binning Overview

From chapter 14 “Elements of 3D Seismology” by
Chris Liner

Outline
•Justification for Processing
•Processing Flow
•Bins

Justification

Field data representation of the data is distant from a
distance-depth representation of data.

.

or short-pulse adjustments e.Categories of Processing Adjustments to wavelets. •frequency filtering •phase shifts (rotation) •vibroseis correlation Traveltime Corrections (fig. 14.1) : Statics Normal Moveout Dip Moveout Migration ..g.

tau-p (or radon) •multiple suppression .Categories of Processing •Amplitude Corrections • Geometric spreading •Automatic Gain Control •Noise Reduction •Vertical stack •Muting •CMP stack •filtering (f. f-k.

An example of analysis for near-surface seismic structure Xia et al. 2004 ..

Seismic data “Multiple universes for seismic data” •Shotpoint gathers (distance versus time) •CMP gathers (distance versus time) •Tau-p (horizontal slowness versus intercept time) •f-k (frequency versus wavenumber) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and the receiver (m) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

x V dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) 1/V = 0 ( s/m) 1/V = p (ray parameter) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

x V angle dT/dx = 1/Vh (s/m) 1/Vh = 1/[V/ sin(angle) ] ( s/m) 1/Vh = p (ray parameter) .

Two-way traveltime (s) Distance between shot and Velocity (m/s) the receiver (m) T0 dT/dx = 1/V (s/m) T 2 = T 02 + x 2/ V 2 .

x angle V 1/Vh = 1/[V/sin(angle) ]( s/m) 1/Vh = p (ray parameter) .

Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 Add amplitude tau (intercept time) s x (m) p (s/m) T0 .

Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 Ad da mp l it ud e tau (intercept time) s x (m) p (s/m) T0 .

f (1/s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .1/m) Two-way traveltime (s) x (m) V=f/k (m/s) 1/10 m 100 Hz .

1/m) Two-way traveltime (s) x (m) V=f/k (m/s) 1/10 m 100 Hz .f (1/s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .

1/m) x (m) f (1/s) Vh=inf (m/s) .Two-way traveltime (s) V h =1 00 0 (m /s ) Vh=inf (m/s) h V =1 00 0 (m /s ) k (wavenumber .

Sz Sx P-wave & Sv -wave .

Vh ~= 90% shear wave velocity “skin depth” = 1/2 longest wavelength .

Dispersion t1 t2 t0 t1 t2 Dispersion .

Xia et al.. 2004 .

1/m) x (m) f (1/s) V=f/k (m/s) 100 Hz .Two-way traveltime (s) p=0 1000 m/s k (wavenumber .

Outline Bins Calculated common midpoints “CMP bin center” Length and width of bin <= spatial aliasing dimensions .

To prevent aliasing: max dimension = V/4fmax For GOM: V = V0 + 0.5m by 12.5 m for > 2000 m IDEAL BIN SIZE: 5m by 5m for seafloor and deeper .4 x depth Rule of Thumb: 12.

The “best” bin: •SMALL •ALL OFFSETS •ALL AZIMUTHS •LARGE FOLD .

Outline •Justification for Processing •Processing Flow •Bins .